Peter C . B . Turnbull

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The efficacy of recombinant Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (rPA) produced in Bacillus subtilis and formulated in Alhydrogel or MPL-TDM-CWS (Ribi adjuvant) has been tested and compared to the licensed UK human vaccine in guinea pigs challenged by the aerosol route with the Ames strain of B. anthracis. rPA combined with the Ribi adjuvant was found to(More)
A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies in serum to the protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) components of anthrax toxin. Current human vaccination schedules with an acellular vaccine induce predictable and lasting antibody titers to PA and, when present in the vaccine, to LF. Live(More)
A massive outbreak of anthrax in the wildlife of the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve in Zimbabwe between August and November 2004 resulted in the death of almost all the reserve's estimated 500 kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Other species badly affected were nyala (Tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and roan(More)
Analysis of mortality records has revealed distinct patterns in the incidence of anthrax in elephant and plains ungulates. The seasonal peak among the former is in November at the end of the dry season, while among the latter it occurs in March towards the end of the rainy season. Among elephants, there has been a notable spread of the disease to the west(More)
Passive transfer of lymphocytes and sera from mice immunised using two different formulations containing recombinant protective antigen (rPA) have been used to further elucidate the mechanism of protection against Bacillus anthracis infection. The results demonstrated that an antibody response maybe important in protection against B. anthracis infection,(More)
Anthrax is the archetype zoonosis; no other infectious disease affects such a wide range of species, including humans, although most susceptible are herbivorous mammals. Although the disease appears to have been recognized for centuries, it has yet to be established scientifically how animals contract it. While primarily a disease of warmer regions, it has(More)
This paper presents Etest determinations of MICs of selected antimicrobial agents for 76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides derived from a range of clinical and environmental sources. NCCLS breakpoints are now(More)
Most livestock vaccines in use throughout the world today for immunization against anthrax are derivatives of the live spore vaccine formulated by Sterne in 1937 and still use descendants of his strain 34F2. Credit belongs to this formulation for effective control in many countries with considerable reduction, sometimes complete elimination, of the disease(More)
The 2001 anthrax letter cases brought into focus the need to establish the most effective environmental sampling procedures. Results are presented from two studies aimed at establishing the best procedures for everyday surfaces likely to be contaminated after the release of environmentally stable bioaggressive agents, as exemplified by anthrax spores and(More)
Results are presented from a number of epidemiological studies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) based on the purified anthrax toxin antigens, protective antigen, lethal factor and oedema factor. Studies on sera from a group of 62 human anthrax patients in Turkey and from cattle in Britain following two unrelated outbreaks of anthrax show that EIA using(More)