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PURPOSE Hospital report cards provide information designed to help patients and providers to make decisions. The purpose of this study was to place the design of hospital report cards into a decision-theoretic framework. The authors' objectives were 2-fold: 1st, to determine what the choice of significance level implies about the relative value of the(More)
The propensity score is a subject's probability of treatment, conditional on observed baseline covariates. Conditional on the true propensity score, treated and untreated subjects have similar distributions of observed baseline covariates. Propensity-score matching is a popular method of using the propensity score in the medical literature. Using this(More)
In a study comparing the effects of two treatments, the propensity score is the probability of assignment to one treatment conditional on a subject's measured baseline covariates. Propensity-score matching is increasingly being used to estimate the effects of exposures using observational data. In the most common implementation of propensity-score matching,(More)
There is an increasing interest in the use of propensity score methods to estimate causal effects in observational studies. However, recent systematic reviews have demonstrated that propensity score methods are inconsistently used and frequently poorly applied in the medical literature. In this study, we compared the following propensity score methods for(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is increasingly recognized. We conducted a study to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and to compare the findings with those from patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS(More)
CONTEXT A predictive model of mortality in heart failure may be useful for clinicians to improve communication with and care of hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVES To identify predictors of mortality and to develop and to validate a model using information available at hospital presentation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of 4031(More)
Propensity-score methods are increasingly being used to reduce the impact of treatment-selection bias in the estimation of treatment effects using observational data. Commonly used propensity-score methods include covariate adjustment using the propensity score, stratification on the propensity score, and propensity-score matching. Empirical and theoretical(More)
The propensity score is a balancing score: conditional on the propensity score, treated and untreated subjects have the same distribution of observed baseline characteristics. Four methods of using the propensity score have been described in the literature: stratification on the propensity score, propensity score matching, inverse probability of treatment(More)
Blood pressure displays an oscillation at 0.1 Hz in humans that is well established to be due to oscillations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, the mechanisms that control the strength or frequency of this oscillation are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to define the dynamic relationship between SNA and the vasculature. The(More)
Clinical researchers frequently assess the statistical significance of the difference between two means by examining whether the two 95% confidence intervals overlap. The purpose of this brief communication is to illustrate that the 95% confidence intervals for two means can overlap and yet the two means can be statistically significantly different from one(More)