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Nucleic acid hairpins provide a powerful model system for understanding macromolecular folding, with free-energy landscapes that can be readily manipulated by changing the hairpin sequence. The full shapes of energy landscapes for the reversible folding of DNA hairpins under controlled loads exerted by an optical force clamp were obtained by deconvolution(More)
We developed molecular tension probes (TPs) that report traction forces of adherent cells with high spatial resolution, can in principle be linked to virtually any surface, and obviate monitoring deformations of elastic substrates. TPs consist of DNA hairpins conjugated to fluorophore-quencher pairs that unfold and fluoresce when subjected to specific(More)
RNA folding is enabled by interactions between the nucleic acid and its ion atmosphere, the mobile sheath of aqueous ions that surrounds and stabilizes it. Understanding the ion atmosphere requires the interplay of experiment and theory. However, even an apparently simple experiment to probe the ion atmosphere, measuring the dependence of DNA duplex(More)
We previously demonstrated that tolerance to carbamazepine's anticonvulsant effects occurs only with contingent presentation of the drug relative to the seizure (i.e., drug administration before but not after the seizure). Moreover, this tolerance can be reversed by altering the contingencies of drug administration (e.g., giving the drug after the seizure(More)
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