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Nucleic acid hairpins provide a powerful model system for understanding macromolecular folding, with free-energy landscapes that can be readily manipulated by changing the hairpin sequence. The full shapes of energy landscapes for the reversible folding of DNA hairpins under controlled loads exerted by an optical force clamp were obtained by deconvolution(More)
Several independent research studies have shown that consumption of green tea reduces the development of cancer in many animal models. Epidemiological observations, though inconclusive, are suggesting that green tea consumption may also reduce the risk of some cancers in humans. These anti-carcinogenic effects of green tea have been attributed to its(More)
We developed molecular tension probes (TPs) that report traction forces of adherent cells with high spatial resolution, can in principle be linked to virtually any surface, and obviate monitoring deformations of elastic substrates. TPs consist of DNA hairpins conjugated to fluorophore-quencher pairs that unfold and fluoresce when subjected to specific(More)
Riboswitches are motifs in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of RNA transcripts that sense metabolite levels and modulate the expression of the corresponding genes for metabolite import, export, synthesis, or degradation. All riboswitches contain an aptamer: an RNA structure that, upon binding ligand, folds to expose or sequester regulatory elements in the(More)
RNA folding is enabled by interactions between the nucleic acid and its ion atmosphere, the mobile sheath of aqueous ions that surrounds and stabilizes it. Understanding the ion atmosphere requires the interplay of experiment and theory. However, even an apparently simple experiment to probe the ion atmosphere, measuring the dependence of DNA duplex(More)
Biophysical applications ranging from fluorescence microassays to single-molecule microscopy are increasingly dependent on automated nanoscale positional control and stability. A whirlwind of motion-industry innovation has resulted in an array of new motion options offering significant improvements in application performance, reproducibility and throughput.(More)
Musical ensembles’ attendance at competitive music performance events (CMPEs) is a mainstream characteristic of the music education paradigm in many states. One problem with this current system is that we do not know the extent to which the results of these events impact the musical self-beliefs of the individual participants and those of their ensemble as(More)
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