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The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via(More)
KEY POINTS This study explores the state dependence of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex (HCVR). We simulated an instantaneous increase or decrease of central chemoreceptor activity by activating or inhibiting the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) by optogenetics in conscious rats. During quiet wake or non-REM sleep, hypercapnia increased both breathing(More)
1. Cardiovascular sympathetic nerve activity at rest is grouped into waves, or bursts, that are generally, although not exclusively, related to the heart rate and to respiration. In addition, activity is also generated in response to central commands and to environmental stimuli. 2. Responsibility for the integration of all these different elements of(More)
The expression of c-Fos defines brain regions activated by the stressors hypotension and glucoprivation however, whether this identifies all brain sites involved is unknown. Furthermore, the neurochemicals that delineate these regions, or are utilized in them when responding to these stressors remain undefined. Conscious rats were subjected to hypotension,(More)
To determine the organization of presympathetic vasomotor drive by phenotypic populations of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons, we examined the somatosympathetic reflex (SSR) evoked in four sympathetic nerves together with selective lesions of RVLM presympathetic neurons. Urethane-anesthetized (1.3 g/kg ip), paralyzed, vagotomized and(More)
Somatostatin (SST) neurons in the ventral respiratory column (VRC) are essential for the generation of normal breathing. Little is known about the neuromodulatory role of SST on ventral respiratory neurons other than that local administration induces apnoea. Here, we describe the cardiorespiratory effects of microinjecting SST into the preBötzinger and(More)
RATIONALE The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contains central respiratory chemoreceptors (retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN) and the sympathoexcitatory, hypoxia-responsive C1 neurons. Simultaneous optogenetic stimulation of these neurons produces vigorous cardiorespiratory stimulation, sighing, and arousal from non-REM sleep. OBJECTIVES To identify the(More)
Bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are critical for the maintenance of sympathetic vasomotor tone and normal cardiovascular reflex function. So far, selectively eliminating/inhibiting distinct subpopulations of RVLM neurons has not significantly altered arterial pressure. Here we show that RVLM presympathetic neurons that(More)
The study evaluates the role of computer-aided detection (CAD) in improving the detection of interval cancers as compared to conventional single (CONV) or double reading (DOUBLE). With this purpose, a set of 89 negative cases was seeded with 31 mammograms reported as negative and developing interval cancer in the following 2-year interval (false negative(More)