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The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reproducible index of orthodontic treatment priority. After reviewing the available literature, it was felt that this could be best achieved by using two separate components to record firstly the dental health and functional indications for treatment, and secondly the aesthetic impairment caused by the(More)
Two reliable and valid occlusal indices have been developed to assess treatment need (Index of Treatment Need, IOTN) and the standard of treatment (The PAR Index, Peer Assessment Rating). The IOTN assesses both dental aesthetics and dental health need. The PAR index provides a single summary score for the overall alignment and occlusion. The difference(More)
The literature concerning risk/benefit appraisal for orthodontic treatment is reviewed with respect to factors which influence dental health, social psychological well-being and the harmful effects of orthodontic treatment. There is little evidence to suggest that the absence of malocclusion is associated with a measurably higher self-esteem and life(More)
Allodynia is a common, troublesome feature of neuropathic pain conditions. In a previous study of postherpetic neuralgia we observed that repeated tactile stimulation appeared to reduce the size of the area of allodynia in some patients. We have undertaken a pragmatic clinical study to characterise this phenomenon in neuropathic pain patients with a range(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway. Current treatment options (long acting β-adrenoceptor agonists and glucocorticosteroids) are not optimal as they are only effective in certain patient groups and safety concerns exist regarding both compound classes. Therefore, novel(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hip displacement (HD) in individuals with severe cerebral palsy with function and quality of life (QOL). The second aim was to identify differences in these outcomes when comparing surgical and non-surgical management for HD. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of 26 participants born(More)
Tactile allodynia is a common, troublesome feature of neuropathic pain. Allodynia has been proposed to involve abnormal Abeta-afferent coupling in the dorsal horn resulting in C-fibre activation and increased skin blood flow (SBF). Thus, changes in SBF could provide an objective measure of allodynia. We searched for this mechanism in patients with(More)
The value of thrombolysis in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction is well established. Haemorrhage into subcutaneous tissues is fortunately a rare complication of fibrinolytic administration. However, if as a result of trauma a haematoma develops within the neck following thrombolysis, it can lead to rapid airway compromise. This is the first(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients who experience their nonmalignant chronic pain as intolerable sometimes present at Emergency Departments (EDs). However, as emergency medical services are set up to provide rapid treatment for acute injury or illness; there is potential for misunderstanding and disappointment. Literature on the topic of ED staff attitudes toward chronic(More)
OBJECTIVES Opioid prescription for noncancer pain is increasing in Europe and the United States. Research and guidance have focused on the potential for dependency and medical side effects with high doses. In contrast, benzodiazepines have received little attention in the chronic pain literature, despite evidence for dependency and cognitive impairment in(More)