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Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours about which little is known biologically, and whose diagnosis, on the basis of morphologic appearance alone, is controversial. Medulloblastomas, for example, are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood, but their pathogenesis is unknown, their(More)
In modern clinical neuro-oncology, histopathological diagnosis affects therapeutic decisions and prognostic estimation more than any other variable. Among high-grade gliomas, histologically classic glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas follow markedly different clinical courses. Unfortunately, many malignant gliomas are diagnostically challenging;(More)
OBJECTIVE The precise incidence and prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is not known, and evidence-based clinical diagnostic criteria have not been developed previously. This report contains evidence-based guidelines for clinical diagnosis of INPH that are intended to facilitate future epidemiological studies of INPH, promote(More)
An automated brain tumor segmentation method was developed and validated against manual segmentation with three-dimensional magnetic resonance images in 20 patients with meningiomas and low-grade gliomas. The automated method (operator time, 5-10 minutes) allowed rapid identification of brain and tumor tissue with an accuracy and reproducibility comparable(More)
One of the impediments to the treatment of brain tumors (e.g., gliomas) has been the degree to which they expand, infiltrate surrounding tissue, and migrate widely into normal brain, usually rendering them "elusive" to effective resection, irradiation, chemotherapy, or gene therapy. We demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs), when implanted into(More)
OBJECTIVE A major shortcoming of image-guided navigational systems is the use of preoperatively acquired image data, which does not account for intraoperative changes in brain morphology. The occurrence of these surgically induced volumetric deformations ("brain shift") has been well established. Maximal measurements for surface and midline shifts have been(More)
Although the etiology of primary brain tumors is largely unknown, prior studies suggest that DNA repair polymorphisms may influence risk of glioma. Altered DNA repair is also likely to affect the risk of meningioma and acoustic neuroma, but these tumors have not been well studied. We estimated the risk of glioma (n = 362), meningioma (n = 134), and acoustic(More)
We have used three-dimensional reconstruction magnetic resonance imaging techniques to understand the anatomic complexity of operative brain lesions and to improve preoperative surgical planning. We report our experience with 14 cases, including intra- and extra-axial tumors and a vascular malformation. In each case, preoperative planning was performed(More)
OBJECTIVE We describe the development and implementation of a new open configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, with which neurosurgical procedures can be performed using image guidance. Our initial neurosurgical experience consists of 140 cases, including 63 stereotactic biopsies, 16 cyst drainages, 55 craniotomies, 3 thermal ablations, and 3(More)
A surgical guidance and visualization system is presented, which uniquely integrates capabilities for data analysis and on-line interventional guidance into the setting of interventional MRI. Various pre-operative scans (T1- and T2-weighted MRI, MR angiography, and functional MRI (fMRI)) are fused and automatically aligned with the operating field of the(More)