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Our understanding of staphylococcal pathogenesis depends on reliable genetic tools for gene expression analysis and tracing of bacteria. Here, we have developed and evaluated a series of novel versatile Escherichia coli-staphylococcal shuttle vectors based on PCR-generated interchangeable cassettes. Advantages of our module system include the use of (i)(More)
Human IL-10 (hIL-10) modulates critical immune and inflammatory responses by way of interactions with its high- (IL-10R1) and low-affinity (IL-10R2) cell surface receptors. Human cytomegalovirus exploits the IL-10 signaling pathway by expressing a functional viral IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10), which shares only 27% sequence identity with hIL-10 yet signals(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses the maturation and cytokine production of dendritic cells (DCs), key regulators of adaptive immunity, and prevents the activation and polarization of naïve T cells towards protective gamma interferon-producing effectors. We hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes its viral IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10) to(More)
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of equine herpesviruses (EHV) 1-5 in the nasal secretions (NS) of a cohort of 12 mares and their foals from birth to 6 months of age, estimate the prevalence of EHV-1-5 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of selected foals, and investigate phylogenetic relationships amongst the(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and many other pathogens exploit the IL-10 pathway, as part of their infectious cycle, either through their own encoded IL-10 (hcmvIL-10 for HCMV) or manipulation of the cellular IL-10 signaling cascade. Based on the in vitro demonstrations of its pleiotropic and cell type-dependent modulatory nature, hcmvIL-10 could profoundly(More)
A recent comparison of two rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) genomes revealed that the region at the right end of the U(L) genome component (U(L)b') undergoes genetic alterations similar to those observed in serially passaged human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). To determine the coding content of authentic wild-type RhCMV in this region, the U(L)b' sequence was(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) US28 (and the related open reading frame [ORF] US27) are G-protein-coupled receptor homologs believed to play a role in viral pathogenesis. In vitro, US28 has been shown to bind and internalize ligands, as well as activate intracellular signaling in response to certain chemokines, and to initiate the migration of smooth muscle(More)
The SaPIs are chromosomal islands in staphylococci and other Gram-positive bacteria that carry genes for superantigens, virulence factors, resistance and certain metabolic functions. They have intimate relationships with certain temperate phages involving phage-induced excision, replication and efficient packaging in special small-headed infective(More)
Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has highly evolved mechanisms for avoiding detection by the host immune system. Recently, in the genomes of human and primate CMV, a novel gene comprising segments of noncontiguous open reading frames was identified and found to have limited predicted homology to endogenous cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10). Here we investigate the(More)