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The subgradient method is used frequently to optimize dual functions in Lagrangian relaxation for separable integer programming problems. In the method, all subproblems must be solved optimally to obtain a subgradient direction. In this paper, the surrogate subgradient method is developed, where a proper direction can be obtained without solving optimally(More)
Ž . A Holonic Manufacturing System HMS is a manufacturing system where key elements, such as machines, cells, factories, parts, products, operators, teams, etc., are modeled as ‘holons’ having autonomous and cooperatiÕe properties. The decentralized information structure, the distributed decision-making authority, the integration of physical and(More)
Scheduling is one of the most basic but the most difficult problems encountered in the manufacturing industry. Generally, some degree of time-consuming and impractical enumeration is required to obtain optimal solutions. Industry has thus relied on a combination of heuristics and simulation to solve the problem, resulting in unreliable and often infeasible(More)
Predicting market clearing prices is an important but difficult task, and neural networks have been widely used. A single neural network, however, may misrepresent part of the input-output data mapping that could have been correctly represented by different networks. The use of a “committee machine” composed of multiple networks can in principle alleviate(More)
Lagrangian relaxation (LR) has recently emerged as a practical approach for complex scheduling problems. The efficiency of the approach, however, depends on how fast the relaxed subproblems and the dual problem are solved. Previously, machine capacity constraints were relaxed and the subproblems were solved by using dynamic programming (DP). The number of(More)
The interaction between a smart target and a smart MIMO radar is investigated from a game theory perspective. Since the target and the radar form an adversarial system, their interaction is modeled as a two-person zero-sum game. The mutual information criterion is used in formulating the utility functions. The unilateral, hierarchical, and symmetric games(More)