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Preface This book is the result of an accumulation of work done by the authors and their students over the past twelve years. In each of the years listed, 8-10 students were brought to the University of Washington for a summer REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) program, supported by a REU Grant from the NSF. We want to thank the NSF for its(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated risk of HIV-1 infection among recipients of an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-vectored HIV-1 vaccine was previously reported in the Step HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. We assessed pre-infection cellular immune responses measured at 4 weeks after the second vaccination to determine their roles in HIV-1 infection susceptibility among Step(More)
BACKGROUND Observational data and non-human primate challenge studies suggest that cell-mediated immune responses might provide control of HIV replication. The Step Study directly assessed the efficacy of a cell-mediated immunity vaccine to protect against HIV-1 infection or change in early plasma HIV-1 levels. METHODS We undertook a double-blind, phase(More)
We analyzed HIV-1 genome sequences from 68 newly infected volunteers in the STEP HIV-1 vaccine trial. To determine whether the vaccine exerted selective T cell pressure on breakthrough viruses, we identified potential T cell epitopes in the founder sequences and compared them to epitopes in the vaccine. We found greater distances to the vaccine sequence for(More)
Simulation studies were conducted to estimate the statistical power of repeated low-dose challenge experiments performed in nonhuman primates to detect the effect of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. The effect of various design parameters on power was explored. Results of simulation studies indicate that repeated low-dose challenge studies(More)
To help to design vaccines for acquired immune deficiency syndrome that protect broadly against many genetic variants of the human immunodeficiency virus, the mutation rates at 118 positions in HIV amino-acid sequences of subtype C versus those of subtype B were compared. The false discovery rate (FDR) multiple-comparisons procedure can be used to determine(More)
Consider a study of two groups of individuals infected with a population of a genetically related heterogeneous mixture of viruses, and multiple viral sequences are sampled from each person. Based on estimates of genetic distances between pairs of aligned viral sequences within individuals, we develop four new tests to compare intra-individual genetic(More)
BACKGROUND The Thai Phase III Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we evaluated the effect of vaccination on disease progression after infection. METHODS CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV viral load (VL) were measured serially. The primary analysis(More)
The efficacy of an HIV vaccine to prevent infection is likely to depend on the genetic variation of the exposing virus. This paper addresses the problem of using data on the HIV sequences that infect vaccine efficacy trial participants to 1) test for vaccine efficacy more powerfully than procedures that ignore the sequence data; and 2) evaluate the(More)
The RV144 trial demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy at preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Antibodies against the HIV-1 envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (Env V1 and V2) correlated inversely with infection risk. We proposed that vaccine-induced immune responses against V1/V2 would have a selective effect against, or sieve, HIV-1(More)