Peter B. Gilbert

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BACKGROUND Observational data and non-human primate challenge studies suggest that cell-mediated immune responses might provide control of HIV replication. The Step Study directly assessed the efficacy of a cell-mediated immunity vaccine to protect against HIV-1 infection or change in early plasma HIV-1 levels. METHODS We undertook a double-blind, phase(More)
BACKGROUND In the RV144 trial, the estimated efficacy of a vaccine regimen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was 31.2%. We performed a case-control analysis to identify antibody and cellular immune correlates of infection risk. METHODS In pilot studies conducted with RV144 blood samples, 17 antibody or cellular assays met prespecified(More)
BACKGROUND Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world, estimated at 36% among the population aged 15-49 years. To improve antiretroviral (ARV) treatment delivery, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the social, cultural, and structural determinants of treatment adherence. METHODS We used both qualitative and quantitative research(More)
The restricted neutralization breadth of vaccine-elicited antibodies is a major limitation of current human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) candidate vaccines. In order to permit the efficient identification of vaccines with enhanced capacity for eliciting cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and to assess the overall breadth and potency of(More)
CONTEXT Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) via breastfeeding reverses gains achieved by perinatal antiretroviral interventions. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 infant feeding strategies for the prevention of postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A 2 x 2 factorial(More)
BACKGROUND A safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global priority. We tested the efficacy of a DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus type 5 boost (DNA/rAd5) vaccine regimen in persons at increased risk for HIV-1 infection in the United States. METHODS At 21 sites, we randomly assigned 2504(More)
Microbial biofilm has become inexorably linked with man's failure to control them by antibiotic and biocide regimes that are effective against suspended bacteria. This failure relates to a localized concentration of biofilm bacteria, and their extracellular products (exopolymers and extracellular enzymes), that moderates the access of the treatment agent(More)
The processes associated with early events in biofilm formation have become a major research focus over the past several years. Events associated with dispersion of cells from late stage biofilms have, however, received little attention. We demonstrate here that dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 from biofilms is inducible by a sudden increase in(More)