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Functions of DNA methylation: islands, start sites, gene bodies and beyond
TLDR
Improved genome-scale mapping of methylation allows us to evaluate DNA methylation in different genomic contexts: transcriptional start sites with or without CpG islands, in gene bodies, at regulatory elements and at repeat sequences. Expand
Epigenetics in cancer.
TLDR
The current understanding of alterations in the epigenetic landscape that occur in cancer compared with normal cells, the roles of these changes in cancer initiation and progression, including the cancer stem cell model, and the potential use of this knowledge in designing more effective treatment strategies are discussed. Expand
The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer
TLDR
This review discusses patterns of DNA methylation and chromatin structure in neoplasia and the molecular alterations that might cause them and/or underlie altered gene expression in cancer. Expand
Comprehensive analysis of CpG islands in human chromosomes 21 and 22
TLDR
The complete genomic sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 are used to examine the properties of CpG islands in different sequence classes by using a search algorithm that is compatible with the recent detection of 5-methylcytosine in Drosophila, and might suggest that S. cerevisiae has, or once had, C pG methylation. Expand
The Epigenomics of Cancer
TLDR
Recent advances in understanding how epigenetic alterations participate in the earliest stages of neoplasia, including stem/precursor cell contributions, are reviewed and the growing implications of these advances for strategies to control cancer are discussed. Expand
Epigenetics in human disease and prospects for epigenetic therapy
TLDR
Great potential lies in the development of ‘epigenetic therapies’ — several inhibitors of enzymes controlling epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases, have shown promising anti-tumorigenic effects for some malignancies. Expand
A decade of exploring the cancer epigenome — biological and translational implications
TLDR
Next-generation sequencing is providing a window for visualizing the human epigenome and how it is altered in cancer, including linking epigenetic abnormalities to mutations in genes that control DNA methylation, the packaging and the function of DNA in chromatin, and metabolism. Expand
Specific activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer cells.
TLDR
Results suggest that DNA demethylation and histone deacetylase inhibition can activate expression of miRNAs that may act as tumor suppressors. Expand
Cancer-epigenetics comes of age
TLDR
Current mechanistic understanding of the role of DNA methylation in malignant transformation is reviewed, and it is suggested Knudson's two–hit hypothesis should be expanded to include epigenetic mechanisms of gene inactivation. Expand
Cellular differentiation, cytidine analogs and DNA methylation
TLDR
Results provide experimental evidence for a role for DNA modification in differentiation, and suggest that cytidine analogs containing an altered 5 position perturb previously established methylation patterns to yield new cellular phenotypes. Expand
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