Peter A Reichard

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Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, which constitute the precursor pools used for DNA synthesis and repair. Imbalances in these pools increase mutational rates and are detrimental to the cell. Balanced precursor pools are maintained primarily through the regulation of the RNR substrate(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with depletion, deletions, and point mutations of mtDNA. Patients lack a functional thymidine phosphorylase and their plasma contains high concentrations of thymidine and deoxyuridine; elevation of the corresponding triphosphates probably impairs(More)
Sterile alpha motif and HD-domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a triphosphohydrolase converting deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to deoxynucleosides. The enzyme was recently identified as a component of the human innate immune system that restricts HIV-1 infection by removing dNTPs required for viral DNA synthesis. SAMHD1 has deep evolutionary(More)
We quantify cytosolic and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) from four established cell lines using a recently described method for the separation of cytosolic and mitochondrial (mt) dNTPs from as little as 10 million cells in culture (Pontarin, G., Gallinaro, L., Ferraro, P., Reichard, P., and Bianchi, V. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.(More)
Several mammalian 5'-nucleotidases (5-NTs), attached to membranes or present in the cytosol or in mitochondria, remove the phosphate from ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides with different specificities for the sugar and base moieties. Some enzymes probably participate in signaling functions by producing adenosine from AMP. A more general function may be to(More)
Dividing cultured cells contain much larger pools of the four dNTPs than resting cells. In both cases the sizes of the individual pools are only moderately different. The same applies to mitochondrial (mt) pools of cultured cells. Song et al. [Song S, Pursell ZF, Copeland WC, Longley MJ, Kunkel TA, Mathews CK (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:4990-4995](More)
Nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication occur within two physically separated compartments and on different time scales. Both require a balanced supply of dNTPs. During S phase, dNTPs for nuclear DNA are synthesized de novo from ribonucleotides and by salvage of thymidine in the cytosol. Mitochondria contain specific kinases for salvage of(More)
In postmitotic mammalian cells, protein p53R2 substitutes for protein R2 as a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. In human patients with mutations in RRM2B, the gene for p53R2, mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis is defective, and skeletal muscle presents severe mtDNA depletion. Skin fibroblasts isolated from a patient with a lethal homozygous missense(More)
Nucleoside analogs act as prodrugs that must be converted to 5'-phosphates by intracellular kinases to become active in the treatment of viral and oncological diseases. Activation may be reversed by dephosphorylation if the 5'-phosphates are substrates for 5'-nucleotidases. Dephosphorylation by cytosolic enzymes decreases the efficacy of the analogs,(More)
Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are the precursors used by DNA polymerases for replication and repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in animal cells. Accurate DNA synthesis requires adequate amounts of each dNTP and appropriately balanced dNTP pools. Total cellular pool sizes are in the range of 10-100pmoles of each dNTP/million cells during S(More)