Peter A. Koolmees

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Meat doughs, all having the same chemical composition, were pasteurised to a comparable heat intensity (calculated as Cook values: target level of 5 min at 100°C): (i) while flowing through a glass tube (inner diameter 50 mm) mounted in a special radio-frequency (27 MHz) heating section; (ii) after flowing unheated through the glass tube at the same rate(More)
Sausage containers, derived from animal intestines, are usually preserved by salting and/or drying. Adequately salted final products are microbiologically fully acceptable. However casings, even those packed in dry salt, sometimes deteriorate in quality. Experiments were performed to improve salting procedures by adding food-grade additives to the salt to(More)
Tenderisation of bovine Mm. longissimus dorsi and triceps brachii and factors impacting tenderisation were studied. Mm. longissimus dorsi and triceps brachii of 12 Friesian-Holstein cows (age 3-11 years; 212-349 kg carcass weight) were sampled at various times post mortem (p.m.) for determination of pH, temperature, fibre type and morphology, connective(More)
The natural sausage casings industry is large and worldwide, and casings prepared from the small intestine of sheep form a large part of it. Food safety authorities in several countries have been concerned about the risk to consumers from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Although this agent could enter the European small ruminant population(More)
A histological study was undertaken to determine the efficiency in the removal of the mucosa and Peyer's patches by standard processing of bovine intestines into natural sausage casings. The second objective was to calculate the quantity of lymphoid and nervous tissue per consumable sausage. For the histological analysis, intestinal samples were collected(More)
Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data. The classifications devised during the 19th to the late 20th(More)
This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of(More)
In two experiments the computation of sarcomere length from laser diffraction patterns was tested for accuracy against phase-contrast microscopy . Particular attention was paid to methodological factors such as sampling location and computation formulae. Correlation coefficients between the laser diffraction technique and the microscopical method were high(More)
Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) chicks (0–27 days posthatch) were exposed to decreasing or increasing ambient temperatures. Root mean square electromyographic activity of musculus pectoralis (m. pect.) and musculus iliotibialis (m. iliot.) was recorded simultaneously with O2 consumption and CO2 production. From both muscles,(More)
The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high-temperature regime in controlled climate rooms, with a day(More)