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Clathrin-coated pits at the cell surface select material for transportation into the cell interior. A major mode of cargo selection at the bud site is via the micro 2 subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex, which recognizes tyrosine-based internalization signals. Other internalization motifs and signals, including phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, also tag(More)
The mammalian immune response to infection is mediated by 2 broad arms, the innate and adaptive immune systems. Innate immune cells are a first-line defense against pathogens and are thought to respond consistently to infection, regardless of previous exposure, i.e., they do not exhibit memory of prior activation. By contrast, adaptive immune cells display(More)
Sorting of transmembrane cargo into clathrin-coated vesicles requires endocytic adaptors, yet RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of the AP-2 adaptor complex only disrupts internalization of a subset of clathrin-dependent cargo. This suggests alternate clathrin-associated sorting proteins participate in cargo capture at the cell surface, and a(More)
The autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) protein plays a critical role in regulating plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Inherited defects in ARH lead to a hypercholesterolemia that closely phenocopies that caused by a defective LDL receptor. The elevated serum LDL-cholesterol levels typical of ARH patients and the pronounced accumulation(More)
Most eukaryotes utilize a single pool of clathrin to assemble clathrin-coated transport vesicles at different intracellular locations. Coat assembly is a cyclical process. Soluble clathrin triskelia are recruited to the membrane surface by compartment-specific adaptor and/or accessory proteins. Adjacent triskelia then pack together to assemble a polyhedral(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell tolerance mechanisms are incompletely understood. One possibility is that they possess self-specific activation receptors that result in hyporesponsiveness unless modulated by self-major histocompatability complex (MHC)-specific inhibitory receptors. As putative self-specific activation receptors have not been well characterized, we(More)
Clathrin-associated sorting proteins (CLASPs) expand the repertoire of endocytic cargo sorted into clathrin-coated vesicles beyond the transmembrane proteins that bind physically to the AP-2 adaptor. LDL and GPCRs are internalized by ARH and beta-arrestin, respectively. We show that these two CLASPs bind selectively to the AP-2 beta2 appendage platform via(More)
The independently folded appendages of the large alpha and beta2 subunits of the endocytic adaptor protein (AP)-2 complex coordinate proper assembly and operation of endocytic components during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The beta2 subunit appendage contains a common binding site for beta-arrestin or the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH)(More)
Epsin 1 engages several core components of the endocytic clathrin coat, yet the precise mode of operation of the protein remains controversial. The occurrence of tandem ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIMs) suggests that epsin could recognize a ubiquitin internalization tag, but the association of epsin with clathrin-coat components or monoubiquitin is(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial for fighting infection and establishing immunity. Recently, other proteins, such as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), have also been appreciated for their role in inflammation and immunity. Following the formation and activation of multiprotein complexes, termed inflammasomes, two cytokines, IL-1β and(More)