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Recent signaling resolution models of parent-offspring conflict have provided an important framework for theoretical and empirical studies of communication and parental care. According to these models, signaling of need is stabilized by its cost. However, our computer simulations of the evolutionary dynamics of chick begging and parental investment show(More)
Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is(More)
In many species, young solicit food from their parents, which respond by feeding them. Because of the difference in genetic make-up between parents and their offspring and the consequent conflict, this interaction is often studied as a paradigm for the evolution of communication. Existent theoretical models demonstrate that chick signaling and parent(More)
Interspecific recognition of alarm cues among guild members through "eavesdropping" may allow prey to fine-tune antipredator responses. This process may be linked to taxonomic relatedness but might also be influenced by local adaptation to recognize alarm cues from sympatric species. We tested this hypothesis using antipredator responses of a freshwater(More)
Consistent individual variation in behaviour has been termed ‘animal personality’ and has been identified across a range of behavioural contexts including aggression, boldness in response to a threatening stimulus and exploration. When behaviours are correlated across multiple functional behavioural categories or ‘contexts’, ‘behavioural syndromes’ are said(More)
Numerous studies indicate that the behavioral responses of prey to the presence of predators can have an important role in structuring assemblages through trait-mediated indirect interactions. Few studies, however, have addressed how relative susceptibility to predation influences such interactions. Here we examine the effect of chemical cues from the(More)
Keywords: aggression cumulative assessment model energetic war of attrition fight hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus performance capacity resource-holding potential signal stamina Animal contests often involve the production of repeated signals, which are assumed to be energetically demanding to perform and advertise the performer's fighting ability through a(More)
Animal contests often involve the use of repeated signals, which are assumed to advertise stamina, and hence fighting ability. While an individual may be predicted to give up once it has crossed an energetic threshold, costs inflicted by its opponent may also contribute to the giving-up decision. Therefore, physical strength should be of key importance in(More)
Fisheries-related mortality has been influential in driving global declines in seabird populations. Understanding the overlap between seabird distribution and fisheries is one important element in assessing bycatch risk, and may be achieved by tracking the movements of individual birds and fishing vessels. Here, we assess the spatiotemporal overlap between(More)
Optimal Diet Theory suggests that individuals make foraging decisions that maximise net energy intake. Many studies provide qualitative support for this, but factors such as digestive constraints, learning, predation-risk and competition can influence foraging behaviour and lead to departures from quantitative predictions. We examined the effects of(More)
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