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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an exciting new MRI modality that can reveal detailed anatomy of the white matter. DTI also allows us to approximate the 3D trajectories of major white matter bundles. By combining the identified tract coordinates with various types of MR parameter maps, such as T2 and diffusion properties, we can perform tract-specific(More)
We measured manual reaction time in normal human subjects to confirm that an eccentric visual signal has a biphasic effect on covert attention and eye movements. First, it summons attention and biases a saccade toward the signal; a subsequent inhibition of return then slows responses to signals at that location. A temporal hemifield dominance for inhibition(More)
We describe a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain images that contain multiple sclerosis white matter lesions. Multichannel magnetic resonance images are used to delineate multiple sclerosis lesions while segmenting the brain into its major structures. The method is an atlas-based segmentation technique employing a topological atlas as(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is commonly regarded as an inflammatory disease, but it also has a neurodegenerative component, which represents an additional target for treatment. The use of MRI to evaluate the inflammatory disease component in 'proof-of concept' clinical trials is well established, but no systematic assessment of imaging outcomes to evaluate(More)
Inflammatory demyelination and axon damage in the corpus callosum are prominent features of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may partially account for impaired performance on complex tasks. The objective of this article was to characterize quantitative callosal MRI abnormalities and their association with disability. In 69 participants with MS and 29 healthy(More)
Optical coherence tomography studies in multiple sclerosis have primarily focused on evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer. The aetiology of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis is thought to be secondary to optic nerve demyelination. The objective of this study was to use optical coherence tomography to determine if a subset of patients with(More)
Inflammation, demyelination, gliosis and axonal degeneration are pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Axonal damage is thought to contribute to irreversible damage and functional impairment, but is difficult to quantify. Conventional MRI has been used to assess the inflammatory and demyelinating(More)
OBJECTIVE To study antibody-independent contributions of B cells to inflammatory disease activity, and the immune consequences of B-cell depletion with rituximab, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS B-Cell effector-cytokine responses were compared between MS patients and matched controls using a 3-signal model of activation. The effects of(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging has been widely used in studying rodent models of white matter diseases. In this study, we examined the differences between in vivo and ex vivo fractional anisotropy and diffusivity measurements in the mouse cuprizone model. In the control mouse corpus callosum, ex vivo diffusivities were significantly lower than in vivo(More)