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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an exciting new MRI modality that can reveal detailed anatomy of the white matter. DTI also allows us to approximate the 3D trajectories of major white matter bundles. By combining the identified tract coordinates with various types of MR parameter maps, such as T2 and diffusion properties, we can perform tract-specific(More)
We measured manual reaction time in normal human subjects to confirm that an eccentric visual signal has a biphasic effect on covert attention and eye movements. First, it summons attention and biases a saccade toward the signal; a subsequent inhibition of return then slows responses to signals at that location. A temporal hemifield dominance for inhibition(More)
BACKGROUND Oral fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, significantly improved relapse rates and end points measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as compared with either placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, in phase 2 and 3 studies of multiple sclerosis. METHODS In(More)
Accurate clinical course descriptions (phenotypes) of multiple sclerosis (MS) are important for communication, prognostication, design and recruitment of clinical trials, and treatment decision-making. Standardized descriptions published in 1996 based on a survey of international MS experts provided purely clinical phenotypes based on data and consensus at(More)
We describe a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain images that contain multiple sclerosis white matter lesions. Multichannel magnetic resonance images are used to delineate multiple sclerosis lesions while segmenting the brain into its major structures. The method is an atlas-based segmentation technique employing a topological atlas as(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were made from presumed dopamine-containing neurones in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rat brain slices. 2. Nicotine (10-100 microM) and acetylcholine (ACh) depolarized the neurones. The depolarization caused by ACh was typically biphasic; both components were increased by neostigmine (0.1-10 microM), but only the slower(More)
OBJECTIVE Optical coherence tomography (OCT) noninvasively quantifies retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Studies show RNFL thinning in multiple sclerosis (MS), and we assessed its association with brain atrophy. METHODS RNFL thickness was measured in 40 patients with MS and 15 controls. Brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and partial brain volumes(More)
Optical coherence tomography studies in multiple sclerosis have primarily focused on evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer. The aetiology of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis is thought to be secondary to optic nerve demyelination. The objective of this study was to use optical coherence tomography to determine if a subset of patients with(More)
Autoreactive memory T lymphocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that disease-associated autoreactive T cells from patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly CD4+ CCR7- CD45RA- effector memory T cells (T(EM) cells) with elevated Kv1.3 potassium channel expression. In(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is commonly regarded as an inflammatory disease, but it also has a neurodegenerative component, which represents an additional target for treatment. The use of MRI to evaluate the inflammatory disease component in 'proof-of concept' clinical trials is well established, but no systematic assessment of imaging outcomes to evaluate(More)