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Mathematical models of consumer-resource systems explore the evolution of a morphological trait that determines two resource acquisition rates in a generalist consumer. The consumer also has the ability to adjust its relative consumption of the two resources via behavioral (or developmental) plasticity subject to a trade-off. The analysis examines both(More)
Mathematical models of three-consumer-two-resource systems are used to explore the possibility of coexistence when one consumer is a generalist utilizing both resources, and the other two are specialists utilizing only one. Such coexistence requires strongly saturating functional or numerical responses in at least one consumer and the presence of sustained(More)
We develop the theory of biphasic somatic growth in fish using models based on the distinction between pre- and post-maturation growth and an explicit description of energy allocation within a growing season. We define a 'generic biphasic' (GB) model that assumes post-maturation growth has a von Bertalanffy (vB) form. For this model we derive an explicit(More)
Predator effects on prey dynamics are conventionally studied by measuring changes in prey abundance attributed to consumption by predators. We revisit four classic examples of predator-prey systems often cited in textbooks and incorporate subsequent studies of nonconsumptive effects of predators (NCE), defined as changes in prey traits (e.g., behavior,(More)
This review discusses the interface between two of the most important types of interactions between species, interspecific competition and predation. Predation has been claimed to increase, decrease, or have little effect on, the strength, impact or importance of interspecific competition. There is confusion about both the meaning of these terms and the(More)
Two distinct forms of killer whale (Orcinus orca) occur offthe coast of British Columbia, Alaska and Washington State. These have different diets, and may be reproductively isolated. Because the primary food of transient whales (pinnipeds) is a potential competitor for the primary food of resident whales (salmon), or for the smaller fishes on which salmon(More)
The role of habitat choice behavior in the dynamics of predator-prey systems is explored using simple mathematical models. The models assume a three-species food chain in which each population is distributed across two or more habitats. The predator and prey adjust their locations dynamically to maximize individual per capita growth, while the prey's(More)
This article investigates some simple models of the evolutionary interaction between two prey species that share a common resource and a common predator. Each prey species is characterized by a trait that determines both the rate of resource capture and vulnerability to a predator. In a simple model of a three-species food chain, such traits usually(More)
Various approaches that can be described as 'adaptive dynamics' arose from a need to describe the general features of evolutionary change under complex patterns of frequency dependence. Such frequency dependence often arises from ecological scenarios with several interacting species. Currently, the term, 'Adaptive Dynamics' (capitalized) is most often used(More)
Two or more competing predators can coexist using a single homogeneous prey species if the system containing all three undergoes internally generated fluctuations in density. However, the dynamics of species that coexist via this mechanism have not been extensively explored. Here, we examine both the nature of the dynamics and the responses of the mean(More)