Learn More
Children aged around 5 and 9 years and adults were presented with stories and videos about a protagonist who heard a message purporting to provide factual information. Observing subjects knew whether the message was true or false. In some cases, this message contradicted the listener's existing belief based on what he or she had seen previously. Subjects(More)
Children between the ages of 3 years 7 months and 6 years 5 months experienced a contradiction between what they knew or guessed to be inside a box and what they were told by an adult. The authors investigated whether children believed what they were told by asking them to make a final judgment about the box's content. Children tended to believe utterances(More)
Children with autism and children with Down's syndrome watched the following enactment. A protagonist put one item in location A and another in location B and then left the scene. Subsequently, the items were swapped the other way round. Finally, the protagonist (who remained ignorant of the swap) requested the item in A. The observing child participant was(More)
Five lighthorse mares were actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to determine the relative importance of this hypothalamic hormone in the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Five mares immunized against the conjugation protein served as controls. Mares were initially immunized in November(More)
In a standard deceptive box procedure, children aged around 3 years typically fail to acknowledge their own prior false beliefs. For example, they judge incorrectly that they had initially thought a Smarties tube contained pencils after discovering these to be the actual content. Wimmer and Hart (1991) showed that children were more likely to answer(More)
In two investigations (N = 62 and 59), three- and four-year-old children sometimes disbelieved what they were told about the unexpected contents of a deceptive box, even when they had seen the adult speaker look inside the box before s/he told them what s/he saw, and despite being able to recall the utterance: utterances were treated as unreliable sources(More)
In 5 investigations we examined a new procedure for assessing children's understanding that messages arise from speakers' internal representations. 3- and 4-year-olds watched the enactment of a message-desire discrepant story in which a speaker doll, who believed wrongly that bag A was in location 1 and that bag B was in location 2, gave a message referring(More)
This study was designed to help clarify some of the circumstances under which young children find it easier to acknowledge a false belief held by another person. In Experiment 1, preschoolers (mean age, 3 years; 11 months) watched a movie in which Ness had previously opened a familiar box in Jon's absence to reveal the stereotypical content, which she(More)
Children interpreted an utterance made by a protagonist with a false belief, such as, 'I would like the car in the garage.' Calculating the speaker's belief in conjunction with the literal meaning of the utterance would lead to the correct interpretation that the intended referent is the car on the track, given that the car in the garage swapped places with(More)
In a series of investigations we found that children between 3 and 5 years of age judged that an utterance (such as, "There's milk in the jug") would be ignored by a listener who had previously seen something contradictory (orange juice in the jug). However, children judged that the listener would believe the message "There's milk in the jug" when he had(More)