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Neurodevelopmental models for the pathology of schizophrenia propose both polygenetic and environmental risks, as well as early (pre/perinatal) and late (usually adolescent) developmental brain abnormalities. With the use of brain mapping algorithms, we detected striking anatomical profiles of accelerated gray matter loss in very early-onset schizophrenia;(More)
Non-psychotic individuals at increased risk for schizophrenia show alterations in fronto-striatal dopamine signaling and cortical gray matter maturation reminiscent of those seen in schizophrenia. It remains unclear however if variations in dopamine signaling influence rates of structural cortical maturation in typically developing individuals, and whether(More)
Postmortem brain studies have shown deficits in the cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenic individuals. Expression studies have shown a decrease in the major GABA-synthesizing enzyme (glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) mRNA levels in neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenics relative to controls. In the present(More)
OBJECTIVE Although childhood-onset schizophrenia is relatively rare, a sizable group of children with severe emotional disturbances have transient psychotic symptoms that fall outside of current syndrome boundaries. The relationship of this group of children to those with childhood-onset schizophrenia and other childhood psychiatric disorders is unclear. In(More)
BACKGROUND Recent anatomical brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show a striking postpsychotic progressive loss of cortical gray matter (GM) in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), which appears greater than that seen for adult patients. However, the diagnostic specificity and the relationship of these changes to drug treatment and(More)
CONTEXT Cortical gray matter (GM) loss is marked and progressive in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) during adolescence but becomes more circumscribed by early adulthood. Nonpsychotic siblings of COS probands could help evaluate whether the cortical GM abnormalities are familial/trait markers. OBJECTIVE To map cortical development in nonpsychotic(More)
Copy number variants (CNVs) are risk factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset before the age of 13 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking array of prepsychotic developmental disorders and(More)
Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset of psychosis by the age of 12, is a rare and malignant form of the illness, which may have more salient genetic influence. Since the initial report of association between neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and schizophrenia in 2002, numerous independent replications have been reported. In the current study, we(More)
OBJECTIVE As both premorbid neurodevelopmental impairments and familial risk factors for schizophrenia are prominent in childhood-onset cases (with onset of psychosis by age 12), their relationship was examined. METHOD Premorbid language, motor, and social impairments were assessed in a cohort of 49 patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia. Familial(More)