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Aside from the equilibrium that Hotelling (1931) displayed, his model of non-renewable resources also contains a continuum of bubble equilibria. In all the equilibria the price of the resource rises at the rate of interest. In a bubble equilibrium, however, the consumption of the resource peters out, and a positive fraction of the original stock continues(More)
Observations of both gamma-ray burst sources and certain classes of active galaxy indicate the presence of relativistic shock waves and require the production of high energy particles to explain their emission. In this paper we first review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising the(More)
The theory of diffusive acceleration of energetic particles at shock fronts assumes charged particles undergo spatial diffusion in a uniform magnetic field. If, however, the magnetic field is not uniform, but has a stochastic or braided structure, the transport of charged particles across the average direction of the field is more complicated. Assuming(More)
The limits imposed on diffusive shock acceleration by upstream ion-neutral Alfvén wave damping, and by ionisa-tion and Coulomb losses of low energy particles, are calculated. Analytic solutions are given for the steady upstream wave ex-citation problem with ion-neutral damping and the resulting escaping upstream flux calculated. The time dependent problem(More)
The theory of first order Fermi acceleration at shocks assumes that particles diffuse due to scattering off slow-moving magnetic irregularities. However, cosmic rays are closely tied to magnetic field lines, and the transport process, particularly across the direction of the field, is likely to be more complicated. To describe cross field transport we(More)
A conductimetric method for the assay of butyrylcholinesterase is described. A new conductimetric cell has been used which allows increased sensitivity. The physicochemical parameters (pH, buffer concentration) have been optimized. With 1 mM butyrylcholine, butyrylcholinesterase activities down to 2 x 10(-4) U ml-1 may be measured. Serum volumes needed for(More)
The process of diffusive shock acceleration relies on the efficacy with which hydromag-netic waves can scatter charged particles in the precursor of a shock. The growth of self-generated waves is driven by both resonant and non-resonant processes. We perform high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the non-resonant cosmic-ray driven instability,(More)
Thermal unfolding curves of tropomyosin have so far been fit only semi-quantitatively by the statistical-mechanical theory of the helix-coil transition. The calculated values of helix content are a bit too small for the most dilute solutions and a bit too large for the most concentrated ones. The theory, as hitherto used, assumes a uniform helix-helix(More)
Serum cholinesterase activity was determined by conductimetry using samples in the microliter range. Butyrylcholine iodide was demonstrated to be a convenient substrate for the conductimetric assay. Validation of the microassay was made by using either purified enzyme or control serum. In the range of 0-60 U/l, a linear relationship was demonstrated.(More)