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Fitch showed that not every true proposition can be known in due time; in other words, that not every proposition is knowable. Moore showed that certain propositions cannot be consistently believed. A more recent dynamic phrasing of Moore-sentences is that not all propositions are known after their announcement, i.e. not every proposition is successful.(More)
The growing number of logics has lead to the question: How do we compare two formalisms? A natural answer is: We can compare their expressive power and computational properties. There is, however, another way of comparing logics that has attracted attention recently, namely in terms of representational succinctness, i.e., we can ask whether one of the(More)
In the study of knowledge representation formalisms, there is a current interest in the question of how different formal languages compare in their ability to compactly express semantic properties. Recently, French et al. [9] have shown that modal logics with a modality for public announcement, for everybody knows, and for somebody knows are all(More)
We present two families of exponential lower bounds on the size of modal formulae and use them to establish the following succinctness results. We show that the logic of contingency (ConML) is exponentially more succinct than basic modal logic (ML). We strengthen the known proofs that the so-called public announcement logic (PAL) in a signature containing(More)
Acute phase response (APR) is activated by disorders in systemic homeostasis. The main purpose of APR is to prevent further tissue damage by isolation and destruction of causative agent, removing the toxic products and providing conditions for tissue repair. Probably the most significant change during APR is a transformation in the liver protein spectrum(More)