Perry R. James

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There is now a lot of interest in program testing based on formal specifications. However, most the works in this area focus on one formalized aspect of the software under test. For instance, some previous works of the first author consider abstract data type specifications. Other works are based on behavioural descriptions, such as finite state machines or(More)
With the advent of Java 5 annotations, we note a marked increase in the availability of tools that can statically detect potential null dereferences. For such tools to be truly effective, they require that developers annotate declarations in their code with nullity modifiers and have annotated API libraries. Unfortunately, it has been our experience in(More)
Extended Static Checking (ESC) is a fully automated formal verification technique. Verification in ESC is achieved by translating programs and their specifications into verification conditions (VCs). Proof of a VC establishes the correctness of the program. The implementations of many seemingly simple algorithms are beyond the ability of traditional(More)
Tool support for the Java Modeling Language (JML) is a very pressing problem. A main issue with current tools is their architecture: the cost of keeping up with the evolution of Java is prohibitively high: e.g., Java 5 has yet to be fully supported. This paper presents JML4, our proposal for an Integrated Verification Environment (IVE) for JML that builds(More)
Tool support for the Java Modeling Language (JML) is a very pressing problem. A main issue with current tools is their architecture: the cost of keeping up with the evolution of Java is prohibitively high: e.g., almost three years following its release, Java 5 has yet to be fully supported. This paper presents the architecture of JML4, an Integrated(More)
PURPOSE To examine the microdistribution of natural alpha-radioactivity in deciduous teeth of children and the permanent teeth of juveniles extracted for orthodontic purpose from across the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS The microdistribution of 210Pb-supported 210Po and 226Ra in 708 deciduous and permanent teeth and 32 foetal teeth was measured on 1442(More)
PURPOSE To study geographical variations in the level of naturally occurring 210Pb-supported 210Po in permanent teeth of juveniles in the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS Permanent teeth extracted from 278 juveniles for orthodontic purposes were obtained from 48 counties in the UK. 210Po activity concentration was measured on the outer enamel surface using(More)
We have established a cell co-culture system for assessing potential cytotoxic effects of drugs and their metabolites in vitro. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were cultured for 7 days in modified Earle's medium in order to induce their drug metabolising (primarily mixed function oxidase) enzymes. K562 human erythroleukemic cells in Transwells, were used as(More)
The implementations of many seemingly simple algorithms are beyond the ability of traditional Extended Static Checking (ESC) tools to verify. Not being able to verify toy examples is often enough to turn users off of the idea of using formal methods. ESC4, the ESC component of the JML4 project, is able to verify many more kinds of methods in part because of(More)