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UNLABELLED Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic noncancer pain is common and use of opioids is increasing. Previously published guidelines on use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain have been based primarily on expert consensus due to lack of strong evidence. We conducted searches on Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane databases through July 2008 to identify studies that addressed one or(More)
UNLABELLED Optimal methods to predict risk of aberrant drug-related behaviors before initiation of opioids for chronic noncancer pain and to identify aberrant behaviors after therapy is initiated are uncertain. We systematically reviewed published literature identified through searches of Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane databases through July 2008. Diagnostic(More)
INTRODUCTION The mechanism(s) underlying the eye pain syndrome characterized by photo-oculodynia and decreased tears (herein referred to as PODS) is unknown. Postulating a sympathetically maintained pain mechanism, cervical sympathetic ganglion blocks (CSB) were performed in an open-label trial in two patients as a pilot test of our hypothesis. Because(More)
Outcomes of opioid therapy for noncancer pain remain to be more fully explored. Loss of work is among these outcomes. Especially when work loss becomes "chronic" (persists >or=90 days), it has profound psycho-social repercussions that compound suffering of those already in pain. Furthermore, costs escalate as work loss persists. We thus explored(More)
Opioid rotation refers to a switch from one opioid to another in an effort to improve the response to analgesic therapy or reduce adverse effects. It is a common method to address the problem of poor opioid responsiveness despite optimal dose titration. Guidelines for opioid rotation are empirical and begin with the selection of a safe and reasonably(More)
Opioid analgesics are an irreplaceable component of pharmacotherapy of numerous pain-producing conditions. Clinicians and patients must contend with the imperfect nature of this class of drugs, trying to balance benefits and burdens on a continual basis. New literature related to evidence-based selection of opioids and the neurobiological phenomenon of(More)
The endocannabinoid system is involved in a host of homeostatic and physiologic functions, including modulation of pain and inflammation. The specific roles of currently identified endocannabinoids that act as ligands at endogenous cannabinoid receptors within the central nervous system (primarily but not exclusively CB 1 receptors) and in the periphery(More)
Ten patients with myofascial trigger point pain were entered into a double-blind cross-over study of the reversibility of myofascial trigger point injection (TPI) effects with naloxone versus placebo in order to test the hypothesis that the benefits of TPI are mediated, at least in part, through activation of an endogenous opioid system. Injection of(More)
Phentolamine (30 mg) was administered intravenously to subjects with idiopathic chronic low back pain in a novel placebo-controlled test to determine whether this alpha-adrenergic antagonist would reduce their pain. The effects of infusions on spontaneous pain and stimulus-evoked pains (touch, cold, tapping and deep pressure) were evaluated separately. All(More)