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Knowledge of the spreading mechanism of honeybee pathogens within the hive is crucial to our understanding of bee disease dynamics. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of infectious chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) in bee excreta and evaluate its possible role as an indirect route of infection. Samples of paralyzed bees were (i) produced by(More)
A new RT-PCR test has been developed to diagnose Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) that is able to detect genetically variable viral isolates. In fact, up to 8.7% divergence between partial nucleotide sequences from viral isolates from French honey bees was highlighted in a preliminary variability study. The previously-described RT-PCR was unable to detect(More)
The complete sequences of the two major RNAs of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) have been determined. RNA 1 (3674nt long) and RNA 2 (2305nt long) are positive single-stranded RNAs that are capped but not polyadenylated. The 3' ends of both RNAs are unreactive to polymerisation or ligation even in denaturing conditions, a feature already observed in(More)
A two-step real-time RT-PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology using a fluorescent probe (FAM-TAMRA) was developed to quantify Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in bee samples. Standard curves obtained from a CBPV control RNA and from a plasmid containing a partial sequence of CBPV showed that this assay provided linear detection over a 7-log range(More)
Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II) regulates the intracellular nucleotide pools within the cell by catalyzing the dephosphorylation of 6-hydroxypurine nucleoside 5'-monophosphates. Beside this physiological function, high level of cN-II expression is correlated with abnormal patient outcome when treated with cytotoxic nucleoside analogues. To identify its(More)
Non-natural L-nucleoside analogues are increasingly used as therapeutic agents to treat cancer and viral infections. To be active, L-nucleosides need to be phosphorylated to their respective triphosphate metabolites. This stepwise phosphorylation relies on human enzymes capable of processing L-nucleoside enantiomers. We used crystallographic analysis to(More)
Substrate antagonism has been described for a variety of enzymes with more than one substrate and is characterized by a lowering of the affinity of one substrate in the presence of the other(s). 3-Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) catalyzes phosphotransfer from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (bPG) to ADP to give 3-phosphoglycerate (PG) and ATP, and is subject to(More)
L-Nucleosides comprise a new class of antiviral and anticancer agents that are converted in vivo by a cascade of kinases to pharmacologically active nucleoside triphosphates. The last step of the cascade may be catalyzed by 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), an enzyme that has low specificity for nucleoside diphosphate (NDP): NDP + 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate(More)
Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases are bacterial enzymes responsible for the inactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by O-phosphorylation. It is important to understand the mechanism of enzymes in order to find efficient drugs. Using rapid-mixing methods, we studied the transient kinetics of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(3')-IIIa. We show that an(More)
The value of a combination of ultrasound studies and barium swallow examination in the analysis of temporal relationships between apnea and reflux is demonstrated. The two techniques allow acute apneic spells induced by gastroesophageal reflux to be documented and underlying specific digestive tract disorders demonstrated. The high incidence of digestive(More)