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Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (ARHSP) with thin corpus callosum (TCC) is a common and clinically distinct form of familial spastic paraplegia that is linked to the SPG11 locus on chromosome 15 in most affected families. We analyzed 12 ARHSP-TCC families, refined the SPG11 candidate interval and identified ten mutations in a previously(More)
Many factors have been shown to promote myelination, but few have been shown to be inhibitory. Here, we show that polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) can negatively regulate myelin formation. During development, PSA-NCAM is first expressed on all growing fibers; then, axonal expression is down-regulated and myelin deposition occurs only(More)
In myelinated fibers of the vertebrate nervous system, glial-ensheathing cells interact with axons at specialized adhesive junctions, the paranodal septate-like junctions. The axonal proteins paranodin/Caspr and contactin form a cis complex in the axolemma at the axoglial adhesion zone, and both are required to stabilize the junction. There has been intense(More)
Mutations in the spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) gene encoding paraplegin are responsible for autosomal recessive hereditary spasticity. We screened 135 unrelated index cases, selected in five different settings: SPG7-positive patients detected during SPG31 analysis using SPG31/SPG7 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (n = 7); previously reported(More)
To identify factors predictive of effective bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation for PD with severe motor complications, pre- and postoperative Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were analyzed in a series of 54 patients who received bilateral STN stimulation. Younger age and levodopa responsiveness predict a favorable response to bilateral(More)
Botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) has been shown in European studies to be a safe and effective treatment for cervical dystonia. This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial assessed the safety and efficacy of Dysport in cervical dystonia patients in the United States. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive one treatment with(More)
BACKGROUND Autosomal dominant parkinsonism (ADP) is caused in a large percentage of familial and sporadic cases by mutations in the LRRK2 gene, particularly G2019S. It is also caused by mutations in genes associated with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA), notably CAG/CAA repeat expansions in SCA2. METHODS We screened 164 families with ADP for(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify factors that determine disease severity and clinical phenotype of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), we studied 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3. or SCA6. METHODS To measure the severity of ataxia we used the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). In addition, nonataxia symptoms were assessed with the(More)
BACKGROUND A registry of patients with cervical dystonia (Cervical Dystonia Patient Registry for Observation of onaBotulinumtoxinA Efficacy [CD PROBE]) was initiated to capture data regarding physician practices and patient outcomes with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA). Methods and baseline demographics from an interim analysis(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, with no effective treatment. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying HD has not been elucidated, but weight loss, associated with chorea and cognitive decline, is a characteristic feature of the disease that is accessible to investigation. We, therefore, performed a multiparametric study exploring(More)