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Monozygous twins share a common genotype. However, most monozygotic twin pairs are not identical; several types of phenotypic discordance may be observed, such as differences in susceptibilities to disease and a wide range of anthropomorphic features. There are several possible explanations for these observations, but one is the existence of epigenetic(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS AND FINDINGS We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies(More)
OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional clinical study compared the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Japanese and Caucasians and investigated the role of demographic, genetic, and lifestyle-related risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasians were enrolled to obtain comparable(More)
The etiology of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, including genetic as well as pre- and postnatal factors that influence several different defects of glucose homeostasis, primarily in muscle, beta-cells, and liver. In the present twin study, we report heritability estimates (h(2)) for measures of insulin secretion, insulin resistance, hepatic glucose(More)
OBJECTIVE The incretin hormone GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) promotes pancreatic β-cell function by potentiating insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation. Recently, a combined analysis of several genome-wide association studies (Meta-analysis of Glucose and Insulin-Related Traits Consortium [MAGIC]) showed association to postprandial(More)
OBJECTIVE Common variants in FTO (the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and nongenetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and their influence on in vivo glucose and(More)
BACKGROUND Monozygotic twins discordant for type 2 diabetes constitute an ideal model to study environmental contributions to type 2 diabetic traits. We aimed to examine whether global DNA methylation differences exist in major glucose metabolic tissues from these twins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Skeletal muscle (n = 11 pairs) and subcutaneous(More)
OBJECTIVE—Genome-wide association studies have identified several variants within the MTNR1B locus that are associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and type 2 diabetes. We refined the association signal by direct genotyping and examined for associations of the variant displaying the most independent effect on FPG with isolated impaired fasting glycemia(More)
Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored(More)
N umerous studies have implicated impaired early growth (low birth weight [LBW]) as a risk factor for the development of obesity (1) and type 2 diabetes (2). Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and although the mechanistic basis is not fully known, several characteristics(More)