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An ever-growing volume of peer-reviewed publications speaks to the recent and rapid growth in both scope and understanding of exercise immunology. Indeed, more than 95% of all peer-reviewed publications in exercise immunology (currently >2, 200 publications using search terms "exercise" and "immune") have been published since the formation of the(More)
SUMMARY Q-Gene is an application for the processing of quantitative real-time RT-PCR data. It offers the user the possibility to freely choose between two principally different procedures to calculate normalized gene expressions as either means of Normalized Expressions or Mean Normalized Expressions. In this contribution it will be shown that the(More)
HLA-E is a ligand for the immune-inhibitory NKG2A receptor expressed on NK and T cells. To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry. Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly(More)
Common sequence variants within a gene often generate important differences in expression of corresponding mRNAs. This high level of local (allelic) control-or cis modulation-rivals that produced by gene targeting, but expression is titrated finely over a range of levels. We are interested in exploiting this allelic variation to study gene function and(More)
It is generally accepted that exhausting endurance exercise exhibits strong effects on the immune system. Such effects have been attributed to changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood as well as to changes in the expression of plausible candidate genes. The list of candidate genes is far from being complete, since this issue has not yet been(More)
The involvement of immunological alterations in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is widely discussed. Hitherto, findings on systemic immunological alterations are inconsistent. We measured the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and of the soluble receptors sIL-2r, sIL-6r, and sTNF-alphar, in(More)
PURPOSE It has been found in the chicken that the amount of retinal glucagon mRNA increases during treatment with positive lenses. Pharmacological studies support the idea that glucagon may act as a stop signal for visually induced eye growth. To gain more insight into the functional role of glucagon, the changes of glucagon and glucagon receptor mRNA(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most prominent CNS water channel, is restricted to the glia limitans and astrocytic endfeet. We previously showed the loss of spatial AQP4 expression in glioblastomas and a redistribution across the cell surface. However, opposing AQP4 functions have been described: protective in vasogenic but detrimental in cytotoxic brain edema.(More)
Synaptic plasticity is modulated by differential regulation of transcription factors such as EGR1 which binds to DNA via a zinc finger binding domain. Inactivation of EGR1 has implicated this gene as a key regulator of memory formation and learning. However, it remains puzzling how synaptic input can lead to an up-regulation of the EGR-1 protein within only(More)
The immunological reaction to exercise has been investigated with increasing intensity in the last 10-20 years, with most human studies performed in male subjects. Recently, gender-specific aspects have received growing attention, but studies carefully monitoring the influence of gender including the menstrual cycle, are rare. Here, we report gene(More)