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HLA-E is a ligand for the immune-inhibitory NKG2A receptor expressed on NK and T cells. To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry. Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly(More)
AIMS Glutamate receptor antagonists have failed clinical stroke trials and it has been proposed that the action of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors is necessary for neuronal survival. Thus, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) might be a promising therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to investigate glial expression of EAATs following ischaemia.(More)
The involvement of immunological alterations in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is widely discussed. Hitherto, findings on systemic immunological alterations are inconsistent. We measured the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and of the soluble receptors sIL-2r, sIL-6r, and sTNF-alphar, in(More)
It is generally accepted that exhausting endurance exercise exhibits strong effects on the immune system. Such effects have been attributed to changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood as well as to changes in the expression of plausible candidate genes. The list of candidate genes is far from being complete, since this issue has not yet been(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most prominent CNS water channel, is restricted to the glia limitans and astrocytic endfeet. We previously showed the loss of spatial AQP4 expression in glioblastomas and a redistribution across the cell surface. However, opposing AQP4 functions have been described: protective in vasogenic but detrimental in cytotoxic brain edema.(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene-many of which cause cystic fibrosis-have also been reported in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The authors examine whether mild or severe CFTR mutations, homozygous or compound heterozygous CFTR mutations, or even simple cystic fibrosis carrier status alone(More)
PURPOSE It has been found in the chicken that the amount of retinal glucagon mRNA increases during treatment with positive lenses. Pharmacological studies support the idea that glucagon may act as a stop signal for visually induced eye growth. To gain more insight into the functional role of glucagon, the changes of glucagon and glucagon receptor mRNA(More)
Synaptic plasticity is modulated by differential regulation of transcription factors such as EGR1 which binds to DNA via a zinc finger binding domain. Inactivation of EGR1 has implicated this gene as a key regulator of memory formation and learning. However, it remains puzzling how synaptic input can lead to an up-regulation of the EGR-1 protein within only(More)