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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) results in potent and durable suppression of HIV-1 viremia. However, HIV-1 replication resumes if therapy is interrupted. Although it is generally believed that active replication has been halted in individuals on HAART, immune activation and inflammation continue at abnormal levels, suggesting continued,(More)
BACKGROUND Abacavir/lamivudine and tenofovir/emtricitabine fixed-dose combinations are commonly used first-line antiretroviral therapies, yet few studies have comprehensively compared their safety profiles. METHODS Forty-eight-week data are presented from this multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing the safety profiles of abacavir/lamivudine(More)
Lactic acidosis is a rare but often fatal complication reported in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. We report a series of 12 patients with HIV infection treated with nucleoside analogues who developed unexplained metabolic acidosis. We have also reviewed 60(More)
BACKGROUND The aetiopathogenic bases of HIV-l-/highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy (HALS) are poorly known, but this syndrome indicates that adipose tissue is highly sensitive to either HIV-1 infection, antiretroviral drugs or their combination. METHODS To assess the relative contribution of infection and drugs, we(More)
BACKGROUND Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy may be followed by inflammatory reactions. We studied the epidemiology of herpes zoster infection among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Of 316 patients who initiated combination(More)
BACKGROUND Selection of first-line antiretroviral therapy requires consideration of efficacy as well as effects on lipids given the increased concern about cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients. METHODS ARTEN is a randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial that compares nevirapine (NVP) 200 mg twice daily or 400 mg once daily to atazanavir/ritonavir(More)
Nocardiosis has been believed to be caused by the members of the Nocardia asteroides complex and the Nocardia brasiliensis species. However, recent advances in genotypic identification have shown that the genus exhibits considerable taxonomic complexity and the phenotypic markers used in the past for its identification can be ambiguous. The aim of this(More)
BACKGROUND We assessed the strategy of substituting nevirapine, efavirenz, or abacavir for a protease inhibitor in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in whom virologic suppression had been achieved. METHODS We randomly assigned 460 adults who were taking two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and at least one(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess plasma steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of rifampicin, isoniazid, saquinavir and ritonavir in HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients, and investigate potential interactions between TB drugs and protease inhibitors (PIs). METHODS Open-label, single-arm, sequential PK study including 22 patients with HIV infection and TB.(More)
CONTEXT Studies on meningococcal disease in large urban communities have rarely been performed and are usually based on passive epidemiologic surveillance. Active surveillance may provide new insights. OBJECTIVES To determine epidemiologic, clinical, and bacteriological characteristics and predictors of dismal prognosis (death and sequelae) in(More)