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OBJECTIVE Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) have been implicated in the digestion of fetal membranes. The purpose of this study was to determine the amniotic fluid concentrations of active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to explore the participation of these enzymes in labor (term and preterm), rupture of membranes (term and preterm), and microbial(More)
OBJECTIVE Interleukin 18 is a proinflammatory pleiotropic cytokine that has been implicated in the host defense against infection. This study was undertaken to determine whether interleukin 18 concentrations change in the maternal, fetal, and amniotic fluid compartments with labor (term and preterm) and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. STUDY(More)
OBJECTIVE Intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is one of the most important mechanisms of disease in preterm birth. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)- 1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by neutrophils, macrophages and mature monocytes. TREM-1 is upregulated in biological fluids and tissues infected by Gram (+) and Gram(More)
OBJECTIVE Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein with antimicrobial properties. This study was undertaken to determine whether amniotic fluid concentrations of this protein change with gestational age, infection, labor, and rupture of membranes. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included women who underwent transabdominal amniocentesis (n = 268) in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether there is a relationship between the presence of histological signs of inflammation in the extraplacental membranes and umbilical cord and the concentrations of fetal plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). METHODS The study examined a cohort of patients who were admitted with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes(More)
OBJECTIVES The mechanisms by which microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity leads to membrane weakening and rupture are poorly understood. Recently, endogenous host enzymes have been implicated in this process. Matrix metalloproteinases are a family of potent enzymes that degrade components of the extracellular matrix. Collagen type I provides the main(More)
OBJECTIVE An imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal blood has been observed in several obstetrical syndromes including preeclampsia, pregnancies with fetal growth restriction and fetal death. Vascular lesions have been identified in a subset of patients with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL). It is possible that PTL may be one of(More)
OBJECTIVE Degradation of the extracellular matrix in fetal membranes has been implicated in the process of parturition and rupture of membranes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes capable of degrading extracellular matrix including collagen. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit the activity of MMPs by covalently binding(More)
OBJECTIVE Interleukin 16 is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes the recruitment of nonclonotypic T cells and eosinophils to sites of inflammation and induces resistance to activation-induced apoptosis. This peptide has no homology with members of the chemokine family and is produced by epithelial cells. No information is available about the expression(More)
OBJECTIVE Matrix metalloproteinases are enzymes capable of degrading extracellular matrix components. Matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase 7), a novel member of this family, degrades fibronectin and proteoglycans. The objective of this study was to determine whether parturition (either term or preterm), premature rupture of the membranes, and microbial(More)