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OBJECTIVE Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) have been implicated in the digestion of fetal membranes. The purpose of this study was to determine the amniotic fluid concentrations of active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to explore the participation of these enzymes in labor (term and preterm), rupture of membranes (term and preterm), and microbial(More)
OBJECTIVE Intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is one of the most important mechanisms of disease in preterm birth. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)- 1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by neutrophils, macrophages and mature monocytes. TREM-1 is upregulated in biological fluids and tissues infected by Gram (+) and Gram(More)
OBJECTIVE Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein with antimicrobial properties. This study was undertaken to determine whether amniotic fluid concentrations of this protein change with gestational age, infection, labor, and rupture of membranes. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included women who underwent transabdominal amniocentesis (n = 268) in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether there is a relationship between the presence of histological signs of inflammation in the extraplacental membranes and umbilical cord and the concentrations of fetal plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). METHODS The study examined a cohort of patients who were admitted with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes(More)
OBJECTIVES The mechanisms by which microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity leads to membrane weakening and rupture are poorly understood. Recently, endogenous host enzymes have been implicated in this process. Matrix metalloproteinases are a family of potent enzymes that degrade components of the extracellular matrix. Collagen type I provides the main(More)
OBJECTIVE An imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal blood has been observed in several obstetrical syndromes including preeclampsia, pregnancies with fetal growth restriction and fetal death. Vascular lesions have been identified in a subset of patients with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL). It is possible that PTL may be one of(More)
OBJECTIVE Spontaneous rupture of the fetal membranes occurs after the commencement of labor in 90% of cases. Recent evidence indicates that the process of parturition requires not only an increase in myometrial contractility and cervical ripening, but also degradation of extracellular matrix in fetal membranes (i.e., leakage of fibronectin into(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcome of asymptomatic patients in the second trimester with a nonmeasurable cervical length (0 mm). STUDY DESIGN This retrospective cohort study included 78 patients with singleton pregnancies and a sonographic nonmeasurable cervix that was detected at 14-28 weeks of gestation. Patients(More)
OBJECTIVE Interleukin 18 is a proinflammatory pleiotropic cytokine that has been implicated in the host defense against infection. This study was undertaken to determine whether interleukin 18 concentrations change in the maternal, fetal, and amniotic fluid compartments with labor (term and preterm) and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. STUDY(More)
OBJECTIVE Adiponectin, an adipokine with profound insulin-sensitizing effect, consists of heterogeneous species of multimers. These oligomeric complexes circulate as low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms and can exert differential biological effects. The aims of this study were to(More)