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Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by the AMPA/kainate type of glutamate receptors damages not only neurons but also the myelin-producing cell of the central nervous system, the oligodendrocyte. In multiple sclerosis, myelin, oligodendrocytes and some axons are lost as a result of an inflammatory attack on the central nervous system. Because glutamate is(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity, recently demonstrated in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is evoked by altered glutamate homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the major regulating factors in glutamate excitotoxicity by immunohistochemistry in MS and control white matter with markers for glutamate production (glutaminase), glutamate(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. We examined the effects of aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen on cultured primary rat embryonic neurons from(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between patient age and good functional outcome after ischemic stroke with special focus on young patients who were numerically underrepresented in previous evaluations. METHODS Of 43,163 ischemic stroke patients prospectively enrolled in the Austrian Stroke Unit Registry, 6,084 (14.1%) were ≤55 years old. Functional(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by the AMPA/kainate-type of glutamate receptors is known not only to damage neurons but also the myelin-producing cell of the central nervous system (CNS), the oligodendrocyte. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons are lost or damaged as a result of an inflammatory attack on the CNS. Activated(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate rates, predictors, and prognostic importance of recanalization in an unselected series of patients with stroke treated with IV thrombolysis. METHODS We performed a CT angiography or transcranial Doppler (TCD) follow-up examination 24 hours after IV thrombolysis in 64 patients with documented occlusion of the intracranial internal(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a massive loss of nigral dopamine neurons that results in a reduction of dopamine concentrations in the striatum. The most commonly used treatment for this disease is levodopa therapy to restore striatal dopamine. This treatment is mediated by dopamine receptors, but the effect of treatment and the disease on receptor(More)
BACKGROUND White matter vacuolization of the spinal cord is common in patients with AIDS and may lead to clinical manifestations of myelopathy. The pathogenesis of AIDS-associated myelopathy (AM) is unknown and may be related to metabolic abnormalities rather than to direct HIV infection. The striking pathologic similarity between AM and the vacuolar(More)
BACKGROUND The histopathology of AIDS-associated myelopathy (AM) closely resembles that of myelopathies due to cobalamin or folate deficiency, with white matter vacuolization in the spinal cord. The pathogenesis of AM appears unrelated to direct HIV infection of the spinal cord. There is abnormal trans-methylation metabolism in AM, with decreased(More)