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A cytotoxin (CytK) has been isolated from a Bacillus cereus strain that caused a severe food poisoning outbreak killing three people. A protein of 34 kDa was highly cytotoxic, and the addition of other secreted proteins gave no synergistic effect. CytK was also necrotic and haemolytic. No known B. cereus enterotoxins were produced by this strain. A DNA(More)
Bacillus cereus is widespread in nature and frequently isolated from soil and growing plants, but it is also well adapted for growth in the intestinal tract of insects and mammals. From these habitats it is easily spread to foods, where it may cause an emetic or a diarrhoeal type of food-associated illness that is becoming increasingly important in the(More)
Three enterotoxic components have been isolated from a strain of Bacillus cereus which was involved in a large food poisoning outbreak in Norway in 1995. The components were purified by chromatography on three different columns. Three proteins of 39, 45 and 105 kDa, respectively, were found to be necessary for maximum cytotoxicity. The amino acid N-terminal(More)
The cytotoxicity of the two different enterotoxin complexes of Bacillus cereus was compared after isolation from three different strains. Protein components of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) of 39 kDa, 45 kDa and 105 kDa were isolated from all of the three strains, whilst proteins B, L1 and L2 of haemolysin BL (HBL) were isolated from supernatants of two(More)
The non-haemolytic enterotoxin from Bacillus cereus has been sequenced. It is composed of three components, non-haemolytic enterotoxin A, B and C of 41.0, 39.8 and 36.5 kDa, respectively. Transcription of the operon seems to be positively regulated by plcR, a gene that also regulates phospholipase C expression. There is substantial similarity between the(More)
An in-depth polyphasic approach was applied to study the population structure of the human pathogen Bacillus cereus. To assess the intraspecific biodiversity of this species, which is the causative agent of gastrointestinal diseases, a total of 90 isolates from diverse geographical origin were studied by genetic [M13-PCR, random amplification of polymorphic(More)
Spore-forming bacteria are special problems for the food industry. It is not always possible to apply enough heat during food processing to kill spores, thus we have to take advantage of knowledge of the spore-formers to control them. For the meat industry Clostridium perfringens might become a special problem, although this bacterium mainly causes food(More)
Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and/or oxy acids: [D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is(More)
An aerobic endospore-forming bacillus (NVH 391-98(T)) was isolated during a severe food poisoning outbreak in France in 1998, and four other similar strains have since been isolated, also mostly from food poisoning cases. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the Bacillus cereus Group (over 97% similarity with the(More)
CytK is a pore-forming toxin of Bacillus cereus that has been linked to a case of necrotic enteritis. PCR products of the expected size were generated with cytK primers in 13 of 29 strains. Six strains were PCR-positive for the related gene hly-II, which encodes haemolysin II, a protein that is 37 % identical to the original CytK. Five of the strains were(More)