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Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors find decreases of both CBF and CMRO(2) but increased OEF,(More)
Recent cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMRglc) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed conflicting results. Using simulated data, we previously demonstrated that the often-reported subcortical hypermetabolism in PD could be explained as an artifact of biased global mean (GM) normalization, and that low-magnitude, extensive cortical(More)
INTRODUCTION In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between-state differences exist in the normalization region. Given the variability(More)
AIM Recent studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) report subcortical increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc), after conventional normalization to the global mean. However, if the global mean CBF or CMRglc is decreased in the PD group, this normalization necessarily generates artificial relative increases in regions(More)
OBJECTIVES Evidence from experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests a characteristic pattern of metabolic perturbation in discrete, very small basal ganglia structures. These structures are generally too small to allow valid investigation by conventional positron emission tomography (PET) cameras. However, the high-resolution research(More)
In a recent issue of NeuroImage, we presented evidence that biased global mean (GM) normalization of brain PET data can generate the appearance of subcortical foci with relative hypermetabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and other degenerative disorders. In a commentary to our article, Ma and colleagues presented a study seeking to establish(More)
BACKGROUND Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to(More)
Post-mortem and neuroimaging studies suggest that the serotonergic system, which originates from the brainstem raphe nuclei, is disrupted in Parkinson's disease. This could contribute to the occurrence of non-motor symptoms and tremor, which are only partially explained by dopamine loss. However, the level of involvement of the serotonergic raphe nuclei in(More)
A 76-year-old man with movement disorder had a I-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) SPECT exam demonstrating universally decreased striatal uptake. It was later determined that he had taken modafinil, and the scintigraphy was interpreted as false positive. Because of progressive symptoms, DaTSCAN was repeated 43 months later, with modafinil withheld for 7 days. Striatal(More)
AIM Decreased activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This model would most likely predict a decrease in the rate of cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). To test this hypothesis, we compared CMRO(2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) PET scans from PD patients and healthy(More)