Pentti Somerharju

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Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A that affects males and shows disease expression in heterozygotes. The characteristic progressive renal insufficiency, cardiac involvement, and neuropathology usually are ascribed to globotriaosylceramide accumulation in the endothelium. However, no direct(More)
Polarity is key to the function of eukaryotic cells. On the establishment of a polarity axis, cells can vectorially target secretion, generating an asymmetric distribution of plasma membrane proteins. From Saccharomyces cerevisiae to mammals, the small GTPase Cdc42 is a pivotal regulator of polarity. We used a fluorescent probe to visualize the distribution(More)
Most biological membranes are extremely complex structures consisting of hundreds or even thousands of different lipid and protein molecules. The prevailing view regarding the organisation of these membranes is based on the fluid-mosaic model proposed by Singer and Nicholson in 1972. According to this model, phospholipids together with some other lipids(More)
Recent studies have indicated that a number of bacterial and eukaryotic viruses that share a common architectural principle are related, leading to the proposal of an early common ancestor. A prediction of this model would be the discovery of similar viruses that infect archaeal hosts. Our main interest lies in icosahedral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)(More)
Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a very promising tool for the analysis of phospholipid compositions, but is hampered by the fact that not all molecular species are detected with equal efficiency. We studied this and other issues that need to be taken into account to obtain truly quantitative compositional data. The key findings were as(More)
Sphingomyelin (SM) is a vital component of cellular membranes in organisms ranging from mammals to protozoa. Its production involves the transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine to ceramide, yielding diacylglycerol in the process. The mammalian genome encodes two known SM synthase (SMS) isoforms, SMS1 and SMS2. However, the relative contributions(More)
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is the most abundant lysophospholipid in plasma and tissues, and its level increases in ischemia and inflammation. LPC induces various proinflammatory actions in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, but its effects may vary, depending on the acyl chain. In the present study, we identified the molecular(More)
In this study, we compared the transport of newly synthesized cholesterol with that of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. The arrival of cholesterol on the cell surface was monitored by cyclodextrin removal, and HA transport was monitored by surface trypsinization and endoglycosidase H digestion. We(More)
We have synthesized 1-palmitoyl-2-pyrenedecanoyl-sn-glycero derivatives of 3-phosphatidylcholine, 3-phosphatidylethanolamine, 3-phosphatidylserine, 3-phosphatidylglycerol, 3-phosphatidylinositol, and 3-phosphatidic acid and investigated their behavior in monolayers and in neat and mixed bilayers. Fluorescence spectroscopy of neat pyrene phospholipid(More)
During the search for haloarchaeal viruses, we isolated and characterized a new pleomorphic lipid-containing virus, Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1 (HHPV-1), that infects the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica. The virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 8,082 bp in size. The organization of the genome shows remarkable synteny(More)