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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) afflicts 200,000 patients annually with a mortality rate of 30% to 60% despite wide use of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation, the present standard of care. High-permeability alveolar edema and instability occur early in the development of ARDS, before clinical signs of lung injury, and represent potential targets(More)
IMPORTANCE Improper mechanical ventilation settings can exacerbate acute lung injury by causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury. It is therefore important to establish the mechanism by which the ventilator induces lung injury to develop protective ventilation strategies. It has been postulated that the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury(More)
It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in patients with, or at high-risk for, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a double-edged sword. If the mechanical breath is improperly set, it can amplify the lung injury associated with ARDS, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Conversely, the mechanical(More)
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of data evaluating the efficacy of nutrition support in traumatic brain-injured patients induced into barbiturate coma for refractory intracranial hypertension. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in a select group of trauma patients. METHODS Prospective data were collected on severe traumatic(More)
BACKGROUND Established acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often refractory to treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated modest treatment effects, and mortality remains high. Ventilator strategies must be developed to prevent ARDS. HYPOTHESIS Early ventilatory intervention will block progression to ARDS if the ventilator mode (1) maintains(More)
Signs and symptoms of clinical fat embolism syndrome (FES) usually begin within 24-48 hours after trauma. The classic triad involves pulmonary changes, cerebral dysfunction, and petechial rash. Clinical diagnosis is key because laboratory and radiographic diagnosis is not specific and can be inconsistent. The duration of FES is difficult to predict because(More)
BACKGROUND Lung injury is often studied without consideration for pathologic changes in the chest wall. In order to reduce the incidence of lung injury using preemptive mechanical ventilation, it is important to recognize the influence of altered chest wall mechanics on disease pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that airway pressure release(More)
BACKGROUND Adult respiratory distress syndrome is often refractory to treatment and develops after entering the health care system. This suggests an opportunity to prevent this syndrome before it develops. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that early application of airway pressure release ventilation in high-risk trauma patients reduces(More)
It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the(More)
BACKGROUND Improper mechanical ventilation can exacerbate acute lung damage, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that VILI can be reduced by modifying specific components of the ventilation waveform (mechanical breath), and we studied the impact of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and controlled mandatory(More)