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Small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA and other small RNA transcripts are derived from distinct loci in the genome and play critical roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms in plants and metazoa. They are approximately 22 nucleotides long; regulate mRNA stability through perfect or imperfect match(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a variety of roles in diverse biological processes at the post-transcriptional regulatory level. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, we still know little about their biological functions. As molecular signatures that can be stably detectable in serum and plasma, worm-derived miRNAs have shown promise(More)
Members of tetraspanin family expressed on the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni have been regarded as potential protective antigens. In this work, we were surprised to identify seven tetraspanin-2 (TSP-2) homologs of the protective antigen Sm-TSP-2 in Schistosoma japonicum and found that the transcription profiles of Sj-tsp-2 subclasses were highly variable(More)
Tetraspanins (TSPs) are proteins found on the surface of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni that have been regarded as potential protective antigens. However, divergent evolution may occur among the species of S. mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum under different environmental pressure. Thus, it was essential to characterize the S. japonicum TSP family members(More)
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), as one of the most sensitive and precise gene expression analysis methods, is frequently used to validate data obtained in high-through-put assays. qPCR requires reference genes with stable transcription for accurate normalization. However, no systematic studies on such genes have been performed in(More)
BACKGROUND The gene regulation mechanism along the life cycle of the genus Schistosoma is complex. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential post transcriptional gene regulation elements that affect gene expression and mRNA stability. Preliminary studies indicated that sncRNAs in schistosomal parasites are generated through different pathways, which are(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma japonicum is one of the remarkable Platyhelminths that are endemic in China and Southeast Asian countries. The parasite is dioecious and can reside inside the host for many years. Rapid reproduction by producing large number of eggs and count-react host anti-parasite responses are the strategies that benefit long term survival of the(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes zoonotic schistosomiasis. The typical outcome of schistosomiasis is hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which is primarily induced by soluble egg-derived antigens. Although schistosomal eggs represent an important pathogenic stage to the host, the biology of this critical stage is largely(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomal parasites can establish parasitization in a human host for decades; evasion of host immunorecognition including surface masking by acquisition of host serum components is one of the strategies explored by the parasites. Parasite molecules anchored on the membrane are the main elements in the interaction. Sjc23, a member of the(More)
To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can(More)