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Small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA and other small RNA transcripts are derived from distinct loci in the genome and play critical roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms in plants and metazoa. They are approximately 22 nucleotides long; regulate mRNA stability through perfect or imperfect match(More)
Members of tetraspanin family expressed on the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni have been regarded as potential protective antigens. In this work, we were surprised to identify seven tetraspanin-2 (TSP-2) homologs of the protective antigen Sm-TSP-2 in Schistosoma japonicum and found that the transcription profiles of Sj-tsp-2 subclasses were highly variable(More)
BACKGROUND The gene regulation mechanism along the life cycle of the genus Schistosoma is complex. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are essential post transcriptional gene regulation elements that affect gene expression and mRNA stability. Preliminary studies indicated that sncRNAs in schistosomal parasites are generated through different pathways, which are(More)
Tetraspanins (TSPs) are proteins found on the surface of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni that have been regarded as potential protective antigens. However, divergent evolution may occur among the species of S. mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum under different environmental pressure. Thus, it was essential to characterize the S. japonicum TSP family members(More)
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), as one of the most sensitive and precise gene expression analysis methods, is frequently used to validate data obtained in high-through-put assays. qPCR requires reference genes with stable transcription for accurate normalization. However, no systematic studies on such genes have been performed in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a variety of roles in diverse biological processes at the post-transcriptional regulatory level. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, we still know little about their biological functions. As molecular signatures that can be stably detectable in serum and plasma, worm-derived miRNAs have shown promise(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes zoonotic schistosomiasis. The typical outcome of schistosomiasis is hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which is primarily induced by soluble egg-derived antigens. Although schistosomal eggs represent an important pathogenic stage to the host, the biology of this critical stage is largely(More)
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential events to play important roles in a series of biological processes. There are probably more ways of PPIs than we currently realized. Structural and functional investigations of weak PPIs have lagged behind those of strong PPIs due to technical difficulties. Weak PPIs are often short-lived, which may result(More)
Schistosomiasis is a chronic enteropathogenic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. The disease afflicts approximately 240 million individuals globally, causing approximately 70 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Chronic infections with morbidity and mortality occur as a result of granuloma formation in the intestine, liver, or(More)
Sj23, a member of the tetraspanin protein family, is a 23-kDa surface-exposed protein of Schistosoma japonicum and expressed in all infective parasite stages, which has been regarded as a potential candidate in vaccine development for schistosomiasis. In this study, we found that, in the BALB/c mouse model, Sj23 elicited rapid humoral responses after(More)