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Cognitive radio is emerging as a promising technique to improve the utilization of the radio frequency spectrum. In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum sharing among primary (or "licensed") users (PUs) and secondary (or "unlicensed") users (SUs). We formulate the problem based on bandwidth auction, in which each SU makes a bid for the amount of(More)
In this paper, we consider a scenario where multiple secondary users search for idle frequency bands in a spectrum consisting of multiple channels. The state of each channel is modeled as a discrete-time Markov process. In each time slot, one secondary user(SU) chooses one channel to sense and decides whether to use the channel based on the sensing result.(More)
Cognitive Radio is a promising technology to solve the problem of increasing spectrum shortage in wireless communication. It allows secondary users(SUs) to opportunistically access idle spectrum of primary users(PUs) while ensuring collision perceived by PUs under a specific requirement. Testbed is essential to advance the development of cognitive radio(More)
The generation of functional hepatocytes is a major challenge for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Here we show a method that facilitates generation of induced functional hepatocytes (iHeps) from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) within 9 days. iHeps express hepatocytic gene programs and display functions characteristic of mature hepatocytes,(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a new therapeutic paradigm for a number of diseases because they possess unique biological characteristics such as multipotency, immunomodulation and production of cytokines. Currently, 425 MSC based clinical trials have been conducted for at least 12 kinds of pathological conditions, with many completed trials(More)
STUDY DESIGN Microarray approach and integrated gene network analysis. OBJECTIVE To explore the differential genetic expression profile, gene ontology terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) of idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and non-AIS controls. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The pathogenesis(More)
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