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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of acute lung injury, is a devastating clinical syndrome with a high mortality rate (30-60%) (refs 1-3). Predisposing factors for ARDS are diverse and include sepsis, aspiration, pneumonias and infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. At present, there are no(More)
During several months of 2003, a newly identified illness termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spread rapidly through the world. A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was identified as the SARS pathogen, which triggered severe pneumonia and acute, often lethal, lung failure. Moreover, among infected individuals influenza such as the Spanish flu and the(More)
While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was initially thought to enter cells through direct fusion with the plasma membrane, more recent evidence suggests that virus entry may also involve endocytosis. We have found that SARS-CoV enters cells via pH- and receptor-dependent endocytosis. Treatment of cells with either SARS-CoV spike(More)
The threat of a new influenza pandemic has existed since 1997, when the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of avian influenza A virus infected humans in Hong Kong and spread across Asia, where it continued to infect poultry and people. The human mortality rate of H5N1 infection is about 60%, whereas that of seasonal H1N1 infection is less than 0.1%. The high(More)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium pathogens, are devastating diseases worldwide. We report the expression of RNA interference (RNAi) sequences derived from an essential Fusarium graminearum (Fg) virulence gene, chitin synthase (Chs) 3b, as a method to enhance resistance of wheat plants to fungal(More)
Fujisaki-Okamoto (FOpkc) conversion [14] and REACT conversion [18] are widely known to be able to generically convert a weak public key encryption scheme to a strong encryption scheme, i.e., indistinguishable against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA). In this paper, we discuss applications of Fujisaki-Okamoto (FOpkc) conversion and REACT(More)
The Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) conversion is widely known to be able to generically convert a weak public key encryption scheme, say one-way against chosen plaintext attacks (OW-CPA), to a strong one, namely, indistinguishable against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA). It is not known that if the same holds for identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes,(More)
Nanotechnology is one of today’s most promising technological developments, but safety concerns raise questions about its development. Risk assessments of nanomaterials during occupational exposure are crucial for their development. Here, we assessed the lung toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (f-SWCNT) exposure in C57BL/6 mice,(More)
The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute(More)
Human sacral chondrosarcoma, the most common one of malignant tumors, has a potent capacity to invade locally and metastasize. Notably, CXCR4 and survivin are widely recommended as a candidate of the molecule-targeted therapy. However, the roles and associations of CXCR4 and survivin in sacral chondrosarcoma have not been well characterized. Here, we(More)