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BACKGROUND Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the best-known potentially malignant disorder. A new binary system to grade dysplasia was proposed by WHO, but the biological significance in predicting malignant transformation risk is unknown. The objective of this study is to estimate the rate of malignant transformation in a long-term follow-up cohort, explore the(More)
The ability to pattern multiple bioactive cues on a surface is valuable for understanding how neurons interact with their complex extracellular environment. In this report, we introduce a set of methods for creating such surfaces, with the goals of understanding how developing neurons integrate multiple biologically relevant signals and as a tool for(More)
Assembly of functional neural circuits relies on the ability of axons to navigate a complex landscape of guidance cues in the extracellular environment. In this report, we investigate localized cell signaling in response to these cues by combining a microfabricated compartmentalization chamber with multicomponent, protein-micropatterned surfaces; this(More)
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of(More)
Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many(More)
Formation of functional motor circuits relies on the ability of distinct spinal motor neuron subtypes to project their axons with high precision to appropriate muscle targets. While guidance cues contributing to motor axon pathfinding have been identified, the intracellular pathways underlying subtype-specific responses to these cues remain poorly(More)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is best known for the catalytic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. However, the use of gene-targeting techniques has led to mouse models highlighting many other biochemical properties and actions of this enzyme. This review discusses recent studies examining the functional significance of ACE tissue-specific(More)
The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array(More)
Control of cell migration is important in numerous key biological processes, and is implicated in pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis and inflammatory diseases. Many previous studies indicated that cell migration could be guided by micropatterns fabricated on cell culture surfaces. In this study, we designed a polydimethylsiloxane cell culture(More)
STUDY DESIGN Histological features of the intervertebral disc (IVD)-endplate interface were analyzed. OBJECTIVE To define cartilaginous and bony vertebral endplate in commonly used laboratory animals and compare with that of the humans. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Endplates are crucial for the IVD nutrient supply: the IVDs have limited blood supply; most(More)