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Two evolutionarily unrelated superfamilies of G-protein coupled receptors, V1Rs and V2Rs, bind pheromones and "ordinary" odorants to initiate vomeronasal chemical senses in vertebrates, which play important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. To study the macroevolution of vomeronasal sensitivity,(More)
The diversity and evolution of bitter taste perception in mammals is not well understood. Recent discoveries of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes provide an opportunity for a genetic approach to this question. We here report the identification of 10 and 30 putative T2R genes from the draft human and mouse genome sequences, respectively, in addition to the(More)
Observations of numerous dramatic and presumably adaptive phenotypic modifications during human evolution prompt the common belief that more genes have undergone positive Darwinian selection in the human lineage than in the chimpanzee lineage since their evolutionary divergence 6-7 million years ago. Here, we test this hypothesis by analyzing nearly 14,000(More)
Taste reception is fundamental to diet selection in many animals. The genetic basis underlying the evolution and diversity of taste reception, however, is not well understood. Recent discoveries of T1R sweet/umami receptor genes and T2R bitter receptor genes in humans and mice provided an opportunity to address this question. Here, we report the(More)
Pheromones are chemicals emitted and sensed by conspecifics to elicit social and sexual responses and are perceived in terrestrial vertebrates primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Pheromone receptors in the mammalian VNO are encoded by the V1R and V2R gene superfamilies. The V1R superfamily contains 187 and 102 putatively functional genes in the mouse(More)
Pheromones are chemicals produced and detected by conspecifics to elicit social/sexual physiological and behavioral responses, and they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in terrestrial vertebrates. Two large superfamilies of G protein-coupled receptors, V1rs and V2rs, have been identified as pheromone receptors in vomeronasal sensory(More)
The vomeronasal receptor 1 (V1R) are believed to be pheromone receptors in rodents. Here we used computational methods to identify 95 and 62 new putative V1R genes from the draft rat and mouse genome sequence, respectively. The rat V1R repertoire consists of 11 subfamilies, 10 of which are shared with the mouse, while rat appears to lack the H and I(More)
This study aimed to investigate the chlorination effects on microbial antibiotic resistance in a drinking water treatment plant. Biochemical identification, 16S rRNA gene cloning and metagenomic analysis consistently indicated that Proteobacteria were the main antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) dominating in the drinking water and chlorine disinfection(More)
Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants.(More)
High-frequency hearing is required for echolocating bats to locate, range and identify objects, yet little is known about its molecular basis. The discovery of a high-frequency hearing-related gene, KCNQ4, provides an opportunity to address this question. Here, we obtain the coding regions of KCNQ4 from 15 species of bats, including echolocating bats that(More)