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Although player enjoyment is central to computer games, there is currently no accepted model of player enjoyment in games. There are many heuristics in the literature, based on elements such as the game interface, mechanics, gameplay, and narrative. However, there is a need to integrate these heuristics into a validated model that can be used to design,(More)
Computer game controllers that require the user to interact using physical movements (other than finger movements) are becoming increasingly popular. The present study sought to explore the factors and context which impact upon preferences for particular physically controlled game peripherals. A comprehensive user study was undertaken and both qualitative(More)
PURPOSE We establish the effectiveness of percutaneous resection of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal collecting system. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis was done of 36 kidneys treated during a 9-year period. Adjunctive therapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin was given in 19 cases. RESULTS Of 36 kidneys 6 were treated by immediate(More)
Game developers and researchers aim to model human behaviour in order to create more engaging, entertaining and satisfying artificial characters for computer games. It is a popular belief that intelligent behaviour is the key to creating better game AI. However, as yet there is no empirical evidence to support this theory or to indicate whether other(More)
Game developers have identified, explored and discussed many of the key issues that arise for players interacting in game worlds. However, there is a need to assess the thoughts and opinions of game-players on these issues, through structured, empirical studies. This paper reports the results of two player-centered studies aimed at investigating these(More)
This paper defines and discusses two contrasting approaches to designing game environments. The first, referred to as scripting, requires developers to anticipate, hand-craft and script specific game objects, events and player interactions. The second, known as emergence, involves defining general, global rules that interact to give rise to emergent(More)
A newly revised operation for controlling spasticity in cerebral palsy patients, selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR), has the potential to affect bladder function. The goal of this multidisciplinary study is to investigate the potential change in bladder function by characterizing and comparing pre- and post-operative symptoms and bladder function, both(More)