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The guinea-pig ventricular cell model, originally developed by Noble et al in 1991, has been greatly extended to include accumulation and depletion of calcium in a diadic space between the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum where, according to contempory understanding, the majority of calcium-induced calcium release is triggered. The calcium in this(More)
The experimental and clinical possibilities for studying cardiac arrhythmias in human ventricular myocardium are very limited. Therefore, the use of alternative methods such as computer simulations is of great importance. In this article we introduce a mathematical model of the action potential of human ventricular cells that, while including a high level(More)
The role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) as the main pathway for Ca2+ extrusion from ventricular myocytes is well established. However, both the role of the Ca2+ entry mode of NCX in regulating local Ca2+ dynamics and the role of the Ca2+ exit mode during the majority of the physiological action potential (AP) are subjects of controversy. The functional(More)
BACKGROUND The authors reported a mutation, P1158S, of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) in a family with cold-induced hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) and myotonia. OBJECTIVE To identify mechanisms of temperature dependency in this channelopathy. METHODS Using the amphotericin B perforated patch clamp method, sodium currents(More)
Early development of ionic models for cardiac myocytes, from the pioneering modification of the Hodgkin-Huxley giant squid axon model by Noble to the iconic DiFrancesco-Noble model integrating voltage-gated ionic currents, ion pumps and exchangers, Ca(2+) sequestration and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, provided a general description for a mammalian(More)
Co-localization of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX) with ryanodine receptors (RyRs) is debated. We incorporate local NCX current in a biophysically detailed model of L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs) and RyRs and study the effect of NCX on the regulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and the shape of the action potential. In canine ventricular cells, under pathological(More)
Early modelling of cardiac cells (1960-1980) was based on extensions of the Hodgkin-Huxley nerve axon equations with additional channels incorporated, but after 1980 it became clear that processes other than ion channel gating were also critical in generating electrical activity. This article reviews the development of models representing almost all cell(More)
OBJECTIVE The L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) contributes to the generation and modulation of the pacemaker action potential (AP). We investigated facilitation of I(Ca,L) in sino-atrial cells. METHODS Facilitation was studied in regularly-beating cells isolated enzymatically from young albino rabbits (0.8-1 kg). We used the whole-cell patch-clamp(More)
Pathologies that result in early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are a known trigger for tachyarrhythmias, but the conditions that cause surrounding tissue to conduct or suppress EADs are poorly understood. Here we introduce a cell culture model of EAD propagation consisting of monolayers of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes treated with anthopleurin-A(More)
Interaction between a membrane oscillator generated by voltage-dependent ion channels and an intracellular calcium signal oscillator was present in the earliest models (1984 to 1985) using representations of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Oscillatory release of calcium is inherent in the calcium-induced calcium release process. Those historical results fully(More)