Penelope M Warwick

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Ten subjects aged 19-35 years (four men and six women) underwent two measurements of 24 h energy expenditure (EE) in a whole-body respiration calorimeter, one at a temperature of 28 degrees and one at 20 degrees. Choice of clothing was allowed. Dietary intake was standardized and subjects were asked to follow the same pattern of activity during both(More)
Fourteen subjects (seven smokers, seven non-smokers) underwent at least one measurement of 24-h energy expenditure (EE) in a respiration chamber, smoking or not smoking as normal. Activity levels (AL) were calculated as multiples of basal metabolic rate (BMR) from records of time spent in specified activity categories and their average published energy(More)
Free-living energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 11 smokers (6 females, 5 males) and 10 nonsmokers (6 females, 4 males) by using three methods. Factorial measures (FEE) used measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), records of time spent in six activity categories over 28 d, and average published energy costs of activities. Intake-balance measures (IBEE) used(More)
A metabolic unit is described in which it is possible to make controlled measurements of energy balance in patients with various types and degrees of obesity. Thirty-seven obese women were studied for three consecutive one-week periods on a diet which provided an average of 3.4MJ (800 kcal) daily, and some also undertook an exercise programme involving the(More)
Resting metabolic rate was measured in 22 women with varying degrees of obesity. Body composition was estimated from total body potassium and from total body water, and creatinine excretion in urine was measured over a period of three weeks while the patients were on a creatinine and creatine-free reducing diet. Resting metabolic rate was highly(More)
Three obese women were studied for periods of 12-13 weeks while on a constant reducing diet (800 kcal/day) in a metabolic ward. Body weight and nitrogen balance were measured throughout the study and patients kept continuous diary card records of their physical activity. Fasting resting metabolic (BMR) was measured twice weekly using a ventilated hood(More)
This study assessed a simple factorial method to predict energy expenditure (EE) in confined and free-living subjects. Thirteen subjects (seven male, 6 female) were studied on four occasions each. Measurements included BMR, 24-h EE by continuous respirometry, 4-d records of intake and activities, body weight, and urine collections. Agreement between(More)
In Australia, the process by which food energy factors are derived for food labelling purposes is under review. One of the questions of international relevance is whether energy factors should be derived using a definition of metabolisable energy (ME) or a definition of net (metabolisable) energy (NME), or some mixture of the two. ME describes the food(More)
1. Weight loss, resting metabolic rate and nitrogen loss were measured in forty obese inpatients on reducing diets. 2. Five subjects ate 3.55 MJ/d for 6 weeks (Expt 1). Twenty-one subjects ate 4.2 MJ/d for the first week, 2.0 MJ/d for the second week and 4.2 MJ/d for the third week (Expt 2). Fourteen subjects ate 3.4 MJ/d for the first week and then 0.87 MJ(More)
The present study investigated trends in reported energy intake, macronutrient intake, physical activity level (PAL) and body weight and effects of excluding under-reporters (UR). Dietary intake and time spent in sixteen activity categories were recorded by 887 female university students (median age 29 years) from 1988 to 2003. Energy expenditure (EE) and(More)