Penelope C. Murphy

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In the feline visual system, neurons exhibiting sensitivity to the length of a moving contour were first observed in the cortex and described as 'hypercomplex cells'. In these cells an increase in stimulus length beyond an optimal value leads to a rapid decline in response. This decline has been attributed to an intracortical inhibitory input which may be(More)
In a previous study, we have shown that the corticofugal projection to the dLGN enhances inhibitory mechanisms underlying length tuning. This suggests that the inhibitory influences deriving from the corticofugal feedback should exhibit characteristics that reflect the response properties of orientation-tuned layer VI cells. Here we report data obtained(More)
We have compared the spatial summation characteristics of cells in the primary visual cortex with those of cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) that provide the input to the cortex. We explored the influence of varying the diameter of a patch of grating centred over the receptive field and quantitatively determined the optimal summation(More)
The cerebral cortex receives sensory input from the periphery by means of thalamic relay nuclei, but the flow of information goes both ways. Each cortical area sends a reciprocal projection back to the thalamus. In the visual system, the synaptic relations that govern the influence of thalamic afferents on orientation selectivity in the cortex have been(More)
1. We have examined the possibility that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may be involved in the visual response of relay cells in the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). The selective NMDA receptor antagonists D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) and 3-[(+/-)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) have been iontophoretically(More)
Variants of hepatitis A virus (pHM175 virus) recovered from persistently infected green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) cells induced a cytopathic effect during serial passage in BS-C-1 or fetal rhesus kidney (FRhK-4) cells. Epitope-specific radioimmunofocus assays showed that this virus comprised two virion populations, one with altered antigenicity including(More)
Two approaches were adopted to study the pattern of connectivity between the cat visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus. Fourteen individual cortico-geniculate axons were labeled and reconstructed after intracellular or extracellular injection of biocytin into regions of known receptive-field position and ocular dominance preference, and the(More)
Acetylcholine and acetyl-beta-methacholine were applied iontophoretically to single cells in the feline striate cortex. The directional bias of the visual response to an optimally oriented stimulus was assessed quantitatively, before and during drug application. For the great majority of the cells that were affected by the drugs, selectivity was either(More)
In order to obtain adequate signal to noise ratio (SNR), stimulus-evoked brain signals are averaged over a large number of trials. However, in certain applications, e.g. fetal magnetoencephalography (MEG), this approach fails due to underlying conditions (inherently small signals, non-stationary/poorly characterized signals, or limited number of trials).(More)