Pellegrino Masiello

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We took advantage of the partial protection exerted by suitable dosages of nicotinamide against the beta-cytotoxic effect of streptozotocin (STZ) to create a new experimental diabetic syndrome in adult rats that appears closer to NIDDM than other available animal models with regard to insulin responsiveness to glucose and sulfonylureas. Among the various(More)
Beta cell loss contributes to type 2 diabetes, with increased apoptosis representing an underlying mechanism. Autophagy, i.e. the physiological degradation of damaged organelles and proteins, may, if altered, be associated with a distinct form of cell death. We studied several features of autophagy in beta cells from type 2 diabetic patients and assessed(More)
We have recently shown in vitro that 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile), an amino acid extracted from fenugreek seeds, potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. The present study was designed to investigate whether 4-OH-Ile could exert in vivo insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties. For this purpose, intravenous or oral glucose tolerance(More)
This study was aimed at exploring the capability of the pancreatic endocrine adaptive mechanisms of ageing Sprague-Dawley rats to counteract the metabolic challenge induced by the prolonged administration of dexamethasone (DEX) (0.13 mg/kg per day for 13 days). DEX treatment induced peripheral insulin resistance in 3-, 18- and 26-month-old rats, as(More)
Endogenous lipid stores are thought to be involved in the mechanism whereby the beta-cell adapts its secretory capacity in obesity and diabetes. In addition, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is expressed in beta-cells and may provide fatty acids necessary for the generation of coupling factors linking glucose metabolism to insulin release. We have recently(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the adaptive response of the endocrine pancreas in vivo and in vitro and the possible beneficial effect of the insulino-mimetic agent vanadyl sulfate (VOSO(4)), using glucocorticoid treatment to increase insulin resistance, in aging rats. DESIGN AND METHODS Dexamethasone (Dex) (0.13 mg/kg b.w.) was administered daily for 13 days to 3-(More)
The aim of this research was to characterize 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity on the insulin-secreting beta-cell line INS-1E. A sharp decline of cell survival (below 20%) was observed after 1 h exposure to TCDD concentrations between 12.5 and 25 nM. Ultrastructurally, beta-cell death was characterized by extensive degranulation,(More)
Type 2 diabetes is increasingly viewed as a disease of insulin deficiency due not only to intrinsic pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction but also to reduction of beta-cell mass. It is likely that, in diabetes-prone subjects, the regulated beta-cell turnover that adapts cell mass to body's insulin requirements is impaired, presumably on a genetic basis. We still(More)
Transient reduction in coronary perfusion pressure in the isolated mouse heart increases microvascular resistance (paradoxical vasoconstriction) by an endothelium-mediated mechanism. To assess the presence and extent of paradoxical vasoconstriction in hearts from normal and diabetic rats and to determine whether increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression(More)
The limited availability of human donors makes the search for alternative islet sources mandatory for future developments in pancreatic islet transplantation. In this study, we report on the massive isolation of bovine islets of proven in vitro and in vivo viability. The islets were prepared by collagenase digestion, sequential filtrations, and(More)