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BACKGROUND Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We therefore assessed the associations between levels of the 3 main modes of urban aerosol distribution and the occurrence of ST-segment depressions during repeated exercise tests. METHODS AND RESULTS Repeated biweekly(More)
Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution are associated with variations in respiratory lung function. It has been suggested that the effects of particulate matter may be due to particles in the ultrafine (0.01-0.1 microm) size range. Because previous studies on ultrafine particles only used self-monitored peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), we(More)
BACKGROUND There is little previous information of the effects of size fractioned particulate air pollution and source specific fine particles (PM(2.5); <2.5 microm) on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among children, adults and the elderly. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of daily variation in levels of different particle size(More)
Non-linear heart rate (HR) dynamics characterizes the fractal properties and complexity of the variations in HR. Ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats might introduce a mathematical artefact to the analyses on sinus rhythm. We therefore evaluated the effects of different editing practices for ectopic beats such that 753 40-min ECG recordings were(More)
Airborne particles are associated with adverse health effects and contribute to excess mortality in epidemiological studies. A recent hypothesis proposes that the high numbers of ultrafine (<0.1 microm diameter) particles in ambient air might provoke alveolar inflammation and subsequently cause exacerbations in pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases. To test(More)
The ULTRA Study, a study investigating the association between fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution and cardiorespiratory health, was conducted during the winter of 1998-1999 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Erfurt, Germany; and Helsinki, Finland. At each study center, a panel of elderly subjects with coronary heart disease recorded cardiac and(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. OBJECTIVES We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS We analyzed 15(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. METHODS We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and(More)
The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter <(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term fluctuations of ambient air pollution have been associated with exacerbation of cardiovascular disease. A multi-city study was designed to assess the probability of recurrent hospitalization in a cohort of incident myocardial infarction survivors in five European cities. The objective of this paper is to discuss the methods for(More)