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BACKGROUND Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We therefore assessed the associations between levels of the 3 main modes of urban aerosol distribution and the occurrence of ST-segment depressions during repeated exercise tests. METHODS AND RESULTS Repeated biweekly(More)
Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution are associated with variations in respiratory lung function. It has been suggested that the effects of particulate matter may be due to particles in the ultrafine (0.01-0.1 microm) size range. Because previous studies on ultrafine particles only used self-monitored peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), we(More)
BACKGROUND It is known that particulate air pollution affects cardiorespiratory health; however, it is unclear which particle size fractions and sources of particles are responsible for the health effects. METHODS Daily levels of nucleation (<0.03 microm), Aitken (0.03-0.1 microm), accumulation (0.1-0.29 microm), and coarse mode (2.5-10 microm) particles,(More)
Weather-related health effects have attracted renewed interest because of the observed and predicted climate change. The authors studied the short-term effects of cold weather on mortality in 15 European cities. The effects of minimum apparent temperature on cause- and age-specific daily mortality were assessed for the cold season (October-March) by using(More)
BACKGROUND There is little previous information of the effects of size fractioned particulate air pollution and source specific fine particles (PM(2.5); <2.5 microm) on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among children, adults and the elderly. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of daily variation in levels of different particle size(More)
OBJECTIVES The reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. METHODS Data on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223(More)
Non-linear heart rate (HR) dynamics characterizes the fractal properties and complexity of the variations in HR. Ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats might introduce a mathematical artefact to the analyses on sinus rhythm. We therefore evaluated the effects of different editing practices for ectopic beats such that 753 40-min ECG recordings were(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether hourly changes in fine particle (PM(2.5), diameter<2.5 microm) exposure or outdoor particle concentrations are associated with rapid ischaemic responses. METHODS 41 non-smoking elderly people with coronary heart disease were followed up with biweekly clinic visits in Helsinki, Finland. The occurrence of ST segment(More)
Airborne particles are associated with adverse health effects and contribute to excess mortality in epidemiological studies. A recent hypothesis proposes that the high numbers of ultrafine (<0.1 microm diameter) particles in ambient air might provoke alveolar inflammation and subsequently cause exacerbations in pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases. To test(More)
The ULTRA Study, a study investigating the association between fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution and cardiorespiratory health, was conducted during the winter of 1998-1999 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Erfurt, Germany; and Helsinki, Finland. At each study center, a panel of elderly subjects with coronary heart disease recorded cardiac and(More)