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The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between mutant huntingtin (Htt) and neuronal damage in relation to mitochondria in Huntington's disease (HD). In an earlier study, we determined the relationship between mutant Htt and mitochondrial dynamics/synaptic viability in HD patients. We found mitochondrial loss, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics(More)
The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between mutant huntingtin (Htt) and mitochondrial dynamics in the progression of Huntington's disease (HD). We measured the mRNA levels of electron transport chain genes, and mitochondrial structural genes, Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), Fis1 (fission 1), Mfn1 (mitofusin 1), Mfn2 (mitofusin 2),(More)
The purpose of this article is to review the recent developments of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fragmentation, and neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The GTPase family of proteins, including fission proteins, dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1),(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting thousands of people in the world and effective treatment is still not available. Over two decades of intense research using AD postmortem brains, transgenic mouse and cell models of amyloid precursor protein and tau revealed that amyloid beta (Aβ) and(More)
This article reviews the role of amyloid-beta (Abeta) and mitochondria in synaptic damage and cognitive decline found in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent molecular, cellular, animal model, and postmortem brain studies have revealed that Abeta and mitochondrial abnormalities are key factors that cause synaptic damage and cognitive decline in(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by chorea, involuntary movements, and cognitive impairments. Tremendous progress has been made since the discovery of HD gene in 1993, in terms of developing animal models to study the disease process, unraveling the expression and function of wild-type(More)
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus controls many critical homeostatic functions including energy homeostasis, reproduction, and motivated behavior. Although G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in the regulation of these functions, relatively few of the GPCRs have been identified specifically within the arcuate nucleus. Here, using TaqMan(More)
Dementia is a complex disorder that mostly affects the elderly and represents a significant and growing public health burden in the world. Alzheimer's disease (AD)- associated dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are the most common forms of dementia, in which oxidative stress is significantly involved. Oxidative stress mechanisms may have clinical(More)
The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, MitoQ and SS31, and the anti-aging agent resveratrol on neurons from a mouse model (Tg2576 line) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and on mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells incubated with the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. Using electron and confocal microscopy, gene(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in synapses and synaptic mitochondria causes synaptic mitochondrial failure and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to better understand the effects of Aβ in mitochondrial activity and synaptic alterations in neurons from a mouse model of AD.(More)