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RNA engineering for nanotechnology and medical applications is an exciting emerging research field. RNA has intrinsically defined features on the nanometre scale and is a particularly interesting candidate for such applications due to its amazing diversity, flexibility and versatility in structure and function. Specifically, the current use of siRNA to(More)
While capsid proteins are assembled around single-stranded genomic DNA or RNA in rod-shaped viruses, the lengthy double-stranded genome of other viruses is packaged forcefully within a preformed protein shell. This entropically unfavourable DNA or RNA packaging is accomplished by an ATP-driven viral nanomotor, which is mainly composed of two components, the(More)
A controllable, 30-nm imitating DNA-packaging motor was constructed. The motor is driven by six synthetic adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding RNA (packaging RNA [pRNA]) monomers, similar to the driving of a bolt with a hex nut. Conformational change and sequential action of the RNA with fivefold (viral capsid)/sixfold (pRNA hexamer) mismatch could ensure(More)
Like DNA, RNA can be designed and manipulated to produce a variety of different nanostructures. Moreover, RNA has a flexible structure and possesses catalytic functions that are similar to proteins. Although RNA nanotechnology resembles DNA nanotechnology in many ways, the base-pairing rules for constructing nanoparticles are different. The large variety of(More)
DNA and protein have been extensively scrutinized for feasibility as parts in nanotechnology, but another natural building block, RNA, has been largely ignored. RNA can be manipulated to form versatile shapes, thus providing an element of adaptability to DNA nanotechnology, which is predominantly based upon a double-helical structure. The DNA-packaging(More)
The application of small RNA in therapy has been hindered by the lack of an efficient and safe delivery system to target specific cells. Packaging RNA (pRNA), part of the DNA-packaging motor of bacteriophage phi29(Phi29), was manipulated by RNA nanotechnology to make chimeric RNAs that form dimers via interlocking right- and left-hand loops. Fusing pRNA(More)
Biological pores have been used to study the transport of DNA and other molecules, but most pores have channels that allow only the movement of small molecules and single-stranded DNA and RNA. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging motor, which allows double-stranded DNA to enter the virus during maturation and exit during an infection, contains a connector(More)
Sensitivity and specificity are two most important factors to take into account for molecule sensing, chemical detection and disease diagnosis. A perfect sensitivity is to reach the level where a single molecule can be detected. An ideal specificity is to reach the level where the substance can be detected in the presence of many contaminants. The rapidly(More)
Nanobiotechnology involves the creation, characterization, and modification of organized nanomaterials to serve as building blocks for constructing nanoscale devices in technology and medicine. Living systems contain a wide variety of nanomachines and highly ordered structures of macromolecules. The novelty and ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29(More)
RNA nanoparticles have applications in the treatment of cancers and viral infection; however, the instability of RNA nanoparticles has hindered their development for therapeutic applications. The lack of covalent linkage or crosslinking in nanoparticles causes dissociation in vivo. Here we show that the packaging RNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging(More)