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Autophagy, a pathway primarily relevant for cell survival, and apoptosis, a process invariably leading to cell death, are the two main mechanisms of cellular self-destruction, which are essential in cell growth, neurodegeneration, tumor suppression, stress and immune response. Currently, a potential crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is subject to(More)
Apoptosis and autophagy are fundamental homeostatic processes in eukaryotic organisms fulfilling essential roles in development and adaptation. Recently, the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 has been reported to also inhibit autophagy, thus establishing a potential link between these pathways, but the mechanistic details are only beginning to emerge. Here we(More)
The function of proteins depends on their ability to sample a variety of states differing in structure and free energy. Deciphering how the various thermally accessible conformations are connected, and understanding their structures and relative energies is crucial in rationalizing protein function. Many biomolecular reactions take place within microseconds(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) belongs to a family of small ubiquitin-like adaptor proteins implicated in intracellular vesicle trafficking and autophagy. We have used diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the temperature and concentration dependence of the diffusion properties of GABARAP.(More)
Vesicular trafficking is an important homeostatic process in eukaryotic cells which critically relies on membrane fusion. One of the essential components of the universal membrane fusion machinery is NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor), a large hexameric ATPase involved in disassembly of SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) complexes. To(More)
The large majority of three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules have been determined by X-ray diffraction of crystalline samples. High-resolution structure determination crucially depends on the homogeneity of the protein crystal. Overall 'rocking' motion of molecules in the crystal is expected to influence diffraction quality, and such(More)
Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can serve as magnetic relaxation sensors (MRSs) to detect different biological targets, because the clustering of magnetic particle may cause the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) decrease of the surrounding water protons. However, the application of MNPs in clinical NMR systems faces the challenge of poor stability(More)
Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) have attracted attention because of their current and potential usefulness as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). USPIOs are usually used for their significant capacity to produce predominant proton relaxation effects, which result in signal(More)
Autophagy is a fundamental homeostatic process in eukaryotic organisms, fulfilling essential roles in development and adaptation to stress. Among other factors, formation of autophagosomes critically depends on proteins of the Atg8 (autophagy-related protein 8) family, which are reversibly conjugated to membrane lipids. We have applied X-ray(More)