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BACKGROUND With the completion of the genome sequences of human, mouse, and other species and the advent of high throughput functional genomic research technologies such as biomicroarray chips, more and more genes and their products have been discovered and their functions have begun to be understood. Increasing amounts of data about genes, gene products… (More)
BACKGROUND In population-based studies, it is generally recognized that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are not independent. Rather, they are carried by haplotypes, groups of SNPs that tend to be coinherited. It is thus possible to choose a much smaller number of SNPs to use as indices for identifying haplotypes or haplotype blocks in genetic… (More)
We present the genomic sequence of Legionella pneumophila, the bacterial agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal pneumonia acquired from aerosolized contaminated fresh water. The genome includes a 45-kilobase pair element that can exist in chromosomal and episomal forms, selective expansions of important gene families, genes for unexpected… (More)
BACKGROUND Haplotype based linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping has become a powerful and cost-effective method for performing genetic association studies, particularly in the search for genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium with complex disease loci. Various methods (e.g. Monte-Carlo (Gibbs sampling); EM (expectation maximization); and Clark's method)… (More)
In microarray experiments, there are a variety of systematic errors to affect the measured gene expression levels. Although a number of algorithms were proposed for the normalization of different type of cDNA microarray data, they have encountered many difficulties due to the complex nonlinear sources of systematic error. In this case, a nonlinear… (More)
Magnetic based strategies are promising to provide solutions for new medical robotic devices. In this paper, we derive an analytical approach for magnetic flux modeling and calculation of force/torque formulas based on a current model. This work is useful for the magnetic design and interaction analysis of medical devices, e.g. for endoscopic procedures.