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Histones are fundamental structural components of chromatin and are expected to play important roles in chromosome dynamics. Here, we present direct evidence that Cse4p, a histone H3 variant, is a structural component of the core centromere of S. cerevisiae. In histone H4 and Cse4p mutants, the core centromere chromatin structure is disrupted at restrictive(More)
Studies on the role of TP53 mutation in breast cancer response to chemotherapy are conflicting. Here, we show that, contrary to dogma, MMTV-Wnt1 mammary tumors with mutant p53 exhibited a superior clinical response compared to tumors with wild-type p53. Doxorubicin-treated p53 mutant tumors failed to arrest proliferation, leading to abnormal mitoses and(More)
Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are a new class of drug targets, although the physiological function of only few DUBs has been characterized. Here we identified the DUB USP15 as a crucial negative regulator of T cell activation. USP15 stabilized the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, which in turn negatively regulated T cell activation by targeting the degradation of the(More)
The p21-activated kinase, Shk1, is required for the proper establishment of cell polarity in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We showed recently that loss of the essential Shk1 inhibitor, Skb15, causes significant spindle defects in fission yeast, thus implicating Shk1 as a potential regulator of microtubule dynamics. Here, we show that cells(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU), an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, leads to childhood mental retardation by exposing neurons to cytotoxic levels of phenylalanine (Phe). A recent study showed that the mitochondria-mediated (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway is involved in Phe-induced(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate potential functional variants in FTO and SH2B1 genes among Chinese children with obesity. METHODS Sanger sequencing of PCR products of all FTO and SH2B1 exons and their flanking regions were performed in 338 Chinese Han children with obesity and 221 age- and sex-matched lean controls. RESULTS A total of seven and five rare(More)
The PAK family kinase, Shk1, is an essential regulator of polarized growth in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here we describe the characterization of a novel member of the RhoGAP family, Rga8, identified from a two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the Shk1 kinase domain. Although deletion of the rga8 gene in wild type S. pombe(More)
p53(R172H/+) mice inherit a p53 mutation found in Li-Fraumeni syndrome and develop metastatic tumors at much higher frequency than p53(+/-) mice. To explore the mutant p53 metastatic phenotype, we used expression arrays to compare primary osteosarcomas from p53(R172H/+) mice with metastasis to osteosarcomas from p53(+/-) mice lacking metastasis. For this(More)
Tumorhead (TH) is a maternally expressed gene product that regulates neural tube morphogenesis in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis. Here we describe the effects of TH expression in the rod-shaped fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Expression of TH in S. pombe resulted in severe morphological defects, including ovoid, bottle-shaped, and enlarged cells.(More)
The p21-activated kinase (PAK) homolog, Shk1, is a critical component of a multifunctional Ras/Cdc42/PAK complex required for viability, polarized growth and cell shape, and sexual differentiation in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Substrate targets of the Shk1 kinase have not previously been described. Here we show that the S. pombe cell(More)