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Large DNA constructs of arbitrary sequences can currently be assembled with relative ease by joining short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (oligonucleotides). The ability to mass produce these synthetic genes readily will have a significant impact on research in biology and medicine. Presently, high-throughput gene synthesis is unlikely, due to the limits(More)
Capsaicin bestows spiciness by activating TRPV1 channel with exquisite potency and selectivity. Although a capsaicin-bound channel structure was previously resolved by cryo-EM at 4.2- to 4.5-Å resolution, capsaicin was registered as a small electron density, reflecting neither its chemical structure nor specific ligand-channel interactions--important(More)
Transient potential receptor melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is a non-selective Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel of the TRPM channel subfamily and is mainly activated by intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR). Here we synthesized a 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl caged ADPR (NPE-ADPR) and found that uncaging of NPE-ADPR efficiently stimulated Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and(More)
DNA Microarrays have become important in genome-wide expression studies. However, to fully use the power of the microarrays, more sophisticated and userfriendly data management and analysis tools have to be developed. We have developed a software package called MAT (Microarray Analysis Tools). MAT consists of a data entry tool, a web-based analysis tool and(More)
The mechanism by which HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) discriminates between the correct and incorrect nucleotide is not clearly understood. Chemically modified nucleotides containing 1-aminonaphthalene-5-sulfonate (ANS) attached to their g-phosphate were synthesized and used to probe nucleotide selection by this error prone polymerase. Primer(More)
The mechanism by which HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) discriminates between the correct and incorrect nucleotide is not clearly understood. Chemically modified nucleotides containing 1-aminonaphthalene-5-sulfonate (ANS) attached to their gamma-phosphate were synthesized and used to probe nucleotide selection by this error prone polymerase. Primer(More)
Intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) regulate essentially all aspects of cellular activities. Their inter-relationship has not been mechanistically explored. In this study, we used bases and acetic acid to manipulate the pHi. We found that transient pHi rise induced by both organic and inorganic bases, but not acidification induced by acid, produced elevation(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent malignancies, worse still, there are very limited therapeutic measures with poor clinical outcomes. Dietary restriction (DR) has been known to inhibit spontaneous and induced tumors in several species, but the mechanisms are little known. In the current study, by using a(More)
Silica nanoparticles (NPs) have remarkable applications. However, accumulating evidence suggests NPs can cause cellular toxicity by inducing ROS production and increasing intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), but the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel is known to be a cellular redox(More)