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The analysis of cell fate patterning during the vulval development of Caenorhabditis elegans has relied mostly on the direct observation of cell divisions and cell movements (cell lineage analysis). However, reconstruction of the developing vulva from EM serial sections has suggested seven different cell types (vulA, vulB1, vulB2, vulC, vulD, vulE, and(More)
The purpose of this study is to assess the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-monitored focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption to enhance Temozolomide (TMZ) delivery for improving Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) treatment. MRI-monitored FUS with microbubbles was used to transcranially disrupt(More)
Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles can bring about transcranial and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for potential noninvasive delivery of drugs to the brain. A phased-array ultrasound system is essential for FUS-BBB opening to enable electronic steering and correction of the focal beam which is distorted by cranial bone.(More)
The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP) and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above) with chronic LBP and 13 age-(More)
The effect of supplementary carbon addition for the treatment of high-technology industrial wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR was operated for 302 days under different C/N (BOD(L)/NH(4)(+)-N) ratios, i.e. 0.9-1 to 20 days, 1.6-21 to 42 days, 2.9-43 to 82 days, 3.6-83 to 141 days, 4.8-165 to 233 days and 9.3-240 to 302 days.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine functional balance abilities of older adults with diabetes, and identify determinants of these abilities. METHODS Eighty diabetic and 67 healthy non-diabetic community-dwelling older adults completed the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and questionnaires about their medical and fall histories. Participants were also assessed(More)
OBJECTIVES Protective steps are essential for fall avoidance. Most studies only examined forwards stepping despite considerable bio-mechanical and visual differences between the forwards and backwards directions. We assess forward-backward differences in protective steps in a young and elderly group. METHODS Protective stepping responses were elicited by(More)
The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize protective stepping responses to unpredictable forward/backward postural perturbation in Parkinson's disease (PD) and (2) to assess whether vibrotactile cues of the impending fall improve the stepping response. Twenty mild PD patients, 7 advanced PD patients, and 17 age-matched controls stood on a(More)
Chronic low back pain (CLBP), one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in older adults, might affect balance and functional independence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postural responses to a suddenly released pulling force in older adults with and without CLBP. Thirty community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 26 voluntary(More)
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